帝力於我何有哉?-記「首屆海外華文新媒體高峰論壇」

【帝力於我何有哉?】

_PEN9485

第一次以官方受邀身份上北京。《人民日報》極力撮成這第一屆的「海外華文新媒體高峰論壇」,不單是為了不讓《中國新聞社》自2001年起每兩年主辦一次「世界華文傳媒論壇」獨占鰲頭,也是因為習大大有了指示,在這中文漸成主要國際語言的勢頭上,加大北京方面與海外華文媒體的配合,在一帶一路啟動時「宣揚好中國故事」。 _PEN9490

中共官方的出席層級最高到國務院僑務辦公室主任(裘援平)、國台辦副主任(李亞飛_張志軍副手)。現場300多位「海外華文媒體」高層,從北歐、非洲、美加、東南亞,包羅了五湖四海的背景,給《人民日報》賞個臉。

台上滿滿官派的發言,雖不像一般理解的「論壇」,但入境隨俗的我並不厭惡。看著這些人以及一張張聊天換來的名片,反不禁感動了起來:這年頭做媒體提供資訊及服務,還有誰在用實際行動買單你們、感念你們的存在、並視之為貢獻呢?

不就「祖國」願意出來這樣號召了嗎?(招待五星級飯店食宿、紀念品、地方采風旅程等等。比之往年,這些已在習帝反腐下降級許多了。)

在海外的中文媒體,絕大多數是小又潦倒、五臟不全,編排質感差、內容闕如,觀念也舊,沒有新媒體的運籌和創新能力。舊時多是靠著「黨」的錢才能辦事生存,時至今日,黨則改換為以新媒體的技術支援,以及消息源(中國官方消息)的串接,打造與海外華文媒體的母體乘載關係。

我不禁欣賞起中國共產黨。從月前〈葉門撤僑行動 中國海軍外交引側目〉報導中的事件主體,到這次上京感受有志一同,就是「統一的中國」以及「13億人的發展」這樣政治堅持背後的信仰純粹;不論它是否被許多人從各種層面被批為錯誤或霸道,大國有大國的辛苦與大國的美。

也是「祖國」這樣的擔當,幾十年的兢兢業業和計畫經濟,讓數億子孫脫貧、讓漢民族回復自信光彩--洋人在北京有著在台北普遍不曾顯現的文化謙卑,與中、港相比,獨獨台灣在面對西方時是如此極度缺乏文化自信(但談到西方都要畏之三分的大陸人時又是沒來由的自大)。

這次「海外華文新媒體高峰論壇」,我自己的與會和觀察視角,與其他多數海外參與者,可數四大不同:

一、我年輕、其他人年長。《人民日報》此次首屆承辦,許多公關安排粗疏、拿捏不周。特別是海外與大陸的文明發展級距,仍然體現在吸菸區安排、床位安排、公關時間、餐敘等流程導引與執行上。

「長」「董」字輩的見識體例豐富,自然無法忍受其中遮騰。但吾少也賤,抱著學習心態,自費又糟糕的服務都常經歷。看著《人民日報》是年輕的問題,不是態度的問題。

二、以民國抗衡中共的正統論述,不似僑社之無根。口口聲聲「領導說的是」,反映問題時,《人民日報》的人員態度極佳、抱歉連連。

然而說到底,海外媒體的老闆,何時成了這些年輕人的老闆?《人民日報》乃至中共,何時成了這些海外媒體的頂頭上司,讓大家魚貫領餐、魚貫合照、魚貫鼓掌? 此種安排,只在中共奶水供應鍊中成立,而正是因為許多海外「僑報」甘於將自我存在安置於此敘事邏輯下(實領中共多少錢則不得而知),才會接受配合一帶一路「宣揚好中國故事」的推動。但這「祖國力」卻從來不曾直接作用在我的思想與文字工作上,帝力於我何有哉?

我對中華思想文化的認同發端,不是那套新中國掩蓋過並統籌起來的內容,反而像是《太平輪》-1949年那艘沉船-舟山渡口兩岸、長江渡口兩岸角色兼有之的那般複雜難數。

三、思維是新媒體,不似走不出的傳統報人。因為是邀請制,我無從具體得知為何台灣眾多大家能想到的網路新媒體,無一參加當中。(台方另外有代表的是統派色彩明顯的《聯合報》、《旺報》等。)

然而當獲邀樣本全是以舊思維發軔的傳統報人,這使得談及雲端以及媒體電商等技術內容時,中方毫不費力地就以「平台」、「後台」的宗主高度派發將大家整合、收編的藥引。 _PEN9513

中共過去以母國政治力以及銀彈確立了宗主權,如今則輕易地在言談中展露了建基於技術力的宗主權。

從台北、矽谷這些有著新媒體聚落的地點視角觀之,立刻就可以突破北京雲端敘事邏輯的詭詐。

為此,北京不碰那些真正在研創新媒體技術的海外新創團隊,是權宜且合理的;當媒體著眼於以技術力量、市場力量,為消費大眾打造更方便、更親切的資訊服務時,「講好中國故事」這種空泛的「愛國力」自然在其中沒有多少運作空間-這類新媒體要不規避政治談論,要不僅以消遣奚落的處理方式避談嚴肅政治。

回頭歸結我從「傳統知識份子」自我定位走出的這幾步路,便深深感嘆 McLuhan 先知性的看見。知識份子追求心靈的自由、思想的解放,過去必須面對政治力對發聲平台的控制壟斷,如今將面臨是「技不如人」的技術力困境。從政治自由、財務自由,未來將在知識份子圈紅火的概念必將是技術自由

_PEN9503 _PEN9501

 

四、基督徒的身份與應用反思。基督徒的事奉與生活觀與「實體經濟」慣常保持若即若離之關係,「反世界」思維的常成為神學應用之掣肘:討神喜悅的工,不必然討人喜悅。因此不受人祝福的工作,必然只能在苦難中等候神的祝福或遲來肯定(vindication)。

然而新媒體對社群的著重如同「經營部落」,和神學中的教會論可合法接軌,使基督徒宣教性的新媒體,透過教會內與教會外的雙重部落整合(凝聚使命、提供資訊服務),建立實體經濟的架構。 _PEN9525

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Prayer Request for the new year’s Work Calendar

◆Prayer Request for the new year’s Work Calendar◆

As we are eventually approaching the end of the Spring Festival and the new work season officially begins tomorrow (Tuesday), one thing that turns out just clear to me right now is the vision of our (and my) path, as well as what we should prayerfully anticipate from God.

Particularly, with the help of friends conversing with me, these days of pause has allowed me to ponder again the meaning of what we are doing at Awakening News Network: no matter how much brainstorming we have conducted on « developing strategies », on « financial proposals », what we feel truly lacking are talents: God-fearing Christian talents dedicated to bring change and transformation to the society through « professional » news ministry (with subtle nuance from « parachurch » or « evangelistic » media ministry) to join and cowork with (and lead) our team.

What I find amusing (because after so much laboring and waiting you could only put up with it with a theological sense of humor) about our HR issue at this critical juncture are that

  1. (1) professionals are generally not God-fearing ones;
  2. (2) Christians generally lack dedicated professional ethics (much of this, IMHO, is to be attributed to the narrow-mindedness and myopia of the kind of missiology preached at parochial church pulpits) ;
  3. (3) dedicated and pure-hearted persons are not the surviving and competitive type of leaders (that is why the protagonists in Japanese manga are always so beloved- Luffy from One Piece, Goku from Dragon Balls, Kenshin from Rurouni Kenshin, and Eren from Shingeki no Kyojin- the good qualifies coexist in them are too precious to be found in the real world).

This is not an emotional quibble against our ministry’s relative stagnation; nor should it be translated as an implicit grudge against our current coworkers. For had we refused to team with people of type of (1) to type (3), we would have had no one in our team. No, all of us in the organization (me surely included) fall somewhere along the lines of these types. And I desperately know that in a few years we have to pass the baton and all the platform we have thus far built to this seemingly non-existent character (mom is old and I am still convinced that, against all odds, I am sent to do professional « academic » ministry).

In a few hours our new work calendar (after CNY) will begin. I do not have a blueprint of everything we can do, but I do have one for what to pray and hope for.

It has never been so clear to me as it is right now what Awakening News Network’s existence serves: it serves God and nothing else. Not any ambition or individuals with ulterior motives. The ministry could be fruitful and worth continuing only if it remains Christ-centered and that a Christ-minded figure holds the key.

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[文摘] 深入虎穴:戰地報導的倫理衝突(Steven Sotloff and James Foley Elevated Journalism and Society)

Referral Link: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/04/opinion/when-reporting-is-dangerous.html?_r=1

 

在美國駐伊戰地記者接連被IS斬首時,也呼喚起我記憶中,電影《一千次晚安》(A Thousand Times Good Night)中,繽紛而現實地呈現那些關於戰地報導的價值倫理辯證,

如《紐約時報》專欄文章 When Reporting is Dangerous 所述,在這些記者心中,有著對公共正義、傳播真相的堅持--本專欄的結尾也是它的主軸:

We mourn you; we miss you; and, we admire you. And your commitment to the serious over the salacious elevates not only journalism but the entire global society.

是他們堅持了嚴肅而非羶色腥的報導,使社會前進、在黑暗中放光明。 They shone a spotlight in dark nooks of the world to help shape the global agenda.

該新聞下方,《紐約時報》精選的 Ken 評論說:

… much of the time when news programs are on the air, they’re not talking about any of the truly important issues of the day. It’s often difficult to find out what’s going on anywhere else in the world because everyone on the air is preoccupied with a trivial sports scandal or the political squabble du jour.

And why broadcast any news at night on the weekends, when you can fill our eyeballs with orange jump suits and prison bars? It’s so much less expensive to take us to prison than to enlighten us about what’s going on in the world. Do all of the civil wars and disasters and everything else take a break on weekends? Of course not, but the news channels do.

這也是作為新聞人,我在看完《一千次晚安》之後對友人說的:這電影太不現實了,派戰地記者出外採訪多貴、風險多高,特別是「純攝影記者」,即使通訊社大都是駐地性質;《都柏林時報》怎麼可能不計成本在每次國際事件都外派攝影記者(也不符即時效益)?

Nicholas Kristof 這篇文章則現實地解析,在當前回基國族板塊(姑且稱之;伊斯蘭公共神學家 Yasir Qadhi 最新針對911的講話給予此對立架構相當的理論支持)衝突態勢升高下,「兩國相爭,不斬來使」的基本默契已經被破壞殆盡了。

西方記者、人道救援者,都被視作意識型態爪牙而被擄、被殺。 Kristof 提到一次在達弗的驚險狀況:

In Darfur once, my interpreter and I were frantically interviewing villagers as a warlord was approaching to massacre them. Finally, my interpreter said: We’ve just got to go. If they catch us, they’ll hold you for ransom. But they’ll just shoot me.

以往戰爭是留女的、殺男的(理由則不必明說);現在則是留西方記者、殺當地翻譯、嚮導、線人--因為他們的生命被視為無用。因此 Kristof 告訴我們,當地人所參與的反抗,是比外來記者更艱難的。

而在戰地記者當中,攝影師又是比文字記者還更需要犯難的--因為他們職能要求,他們不能躲避衝突現場,而必須鑽入槍林彈雨中。因此 street smart 早就告訴這些文字記者:切莫跟攝影記者搭同一部車。(《一千次晚安》有把這些都拍出來。)

A special shout-out to the photojournalists and video journalists, for they often take the greatest risks. A reporter like myself can keep a distance, while that’s useless for those with cameras. My first rule of covering conflicts is never to accept a ride from photographers, because when they hear gunfire they rush toward it. Just Wednesday, it was confirmed that a Russian photojournalist, Andrei Stenin, had been killed in Ukraine.

只是在歌功頌德的理想主義,終要回歸現實主義的檢視一下。那就是,這些報導究竟實際上幫到什麼、貢獻了什麼?讀者回應有很多理性質疑的聲音。 Neil Grossman 在評論中說:

Like everyone else, I am shocked and hearbroken by these beheadings. But you know what? I don’t understand why journalists take on these risks. I wish they wouldn’t. I don’t see that the benefit of their presence in such ridiculously dangerous places where they are such obvious targets outweighs the value of their lives. Moreover, they seem to be playing into the hands of ISIS and similar organizations, who derive financial and propaganda benefits from kidnapping them.

事實上,就是這些犯險的記者,使得蓋達及其相關組織,自 2008年至今,以擄人勒贖從西方政府得到至少 1.25 億美元的贖款壯大其恐怖勢力。

另一位署名 Southernlens 的讀者也質疑,戰地記者到底有沒有能夠幫助解決衝突?

Who do these stories benefit other than the journalist or photographer? Collectively, what difference does it make that there are hundreds of reporters dashing in and our of danger zones to provide the rest of us with full screen views of the latest atrocities?
This trend in reporting accelerated at the start of the Iraq War when the military cordially « embedded » the media for a ringside seat of the invasion. Not only are civilian men and women risking their lives for the « money shot », the objectivity and interpretative reporting, once the basis of good journalism, doesn’t factor into the frame.
So now we’re at the point where journalists are writing about other journalists who, as they become casualties, have become the money shot.
Time to rethink how we report the news and inform the public?

當伊拉克戰爭爆發時,美軍把裝甲車的副駕駛座讓給攝影記者,讓記者們衝鋒陷陣;難道他們不是在為美軍侵略的英勇、伊拉克的混亂和恐怖組織的殘暴作宣傳?難道他們沒有一時半刻被自己的野心衝動蒙蔽,才不顧安危也要拍下那些無價的新聞畫面,好使自己揚名立萬、邀功領賞?難道他們不是早已從公共利益和正義的超然立場偏斜了,轉而成為恐怖組織利用的工具、仇恨的幫凶、文明世界的累贅?

經典的戰地照片斷章取義範例:光看左邊、光看中間,皆非事件全貌。

在《一千次晚安》當中,女主角的動機也是真實而複雜的。她想要讓世界「大吃一驚」,為此,她無從克制、也不願克制體內嗜血的靈魂,使得愛她、在遙遠守望她的家人幾乎崩潰。

至此,戰地記者的確值得比一般新聞人更多的關注、更多的尊敬;但是追求新聞價值的極致,卻不等於追求神性之價值的極致。因為那些是人性、太過人性的

Read more:

Jacques Danois: 真正的偉大新聞人、多產的報導文學作家。

Peace Journalism: Peace journalism has been developed from research that indicates that often news about conflict has a value bias toward violence. It also includes practical methods for correcting this bias by producing journalism in both the mainstream and alternative media, and working with journalists, media professionals, audiences, and organizations in conflict.