包括德意志觀念論哲學（German idealist philosophies）衝擊古典神觀；殖民與帝國主義（colonialism and imperialism）綁架跨文化宣道運動；社會科學的學際（disciplinary social sciences）萌芽；海外探索隊和考古學的發展，帶動聖經科學和高等鑑別學（higher criticism of the Bible），尤其讓靠著Bebbington的四邊型中「聖經主義」維持的福音運動受挫。
如今的「開明福音派」中很多人或不想認的這段「黑歷史」，是因為它的毒性讓後來新福音運動領袖紛紛呼籲與基要派切割。但需要切割，就表示他們曾經根本無法切割。不妨參考George M. Marsden為這個時期的蓋棺之作 Fundamentalism and American Culture. The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism: 1870-1925 (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980)。
深化的努力曾經存在1940年代至1970年代間，學者牧者領袖諸如 Harold Ockenga、Carl F. H. Henry、Gerhard von Rad、Bernard Ramm都各自試圖在學術和智性上重振廣義福音傳統的大方向。可是這樣的努力一方面與既有的宗派拉扯。
二方面就是福音派的實力組織也不怎買單。 世界跨宗派福音派都是「行動主義」，在地的是面向全地萬民的門訓（discipleship）、差傳（mission）、福傳（evangelism），他們強調「實踐神學」（Bebbington 的 actvism）、不在意福音派學者們努力的「聖經神學」（Bebbington的 biblicism；也參考連結中 Mark A. Noll 1994年發聾振聵的 The Scandal of the Evangelical Mind 一書）。
如合理解神蹟？Miracles: God’s Presence and Power in Creation (2018) by Luke Timothy Johnson 新書探討的重點，在 Goodreads 上頭有一篇很好的書評，論者 BlackOxford 把書的重要認識論架構都摘要評析出來了：
For LTJ, Miracle are « experiences that could not be ascribed to merely human agency » Experiences’ have only a very tenuous connection with [verifiable] events. Experience has its own laws which are not those of science or logic. Unfortunately Johnson has nothing to say about how Christian experience might be distinguished from pagan delusion.
Just like early 19th century subjectivist theological epistemology insulates the divine from the threats of rational thinking, what counts (for Johnson) is personal religious experience, inner feeling. Reality is not just the cumulative narratives we have about the world, it is our imaginative capacity itself. Only by re-entering this sort of primitive psychological frame can we comprehend what the gospels are about.
The greatest deficiency of the secular construction of reality, in fact, is its refusal to recognize that it is in fact an imaginative construct rather than a straightforward perception of ‘how things are.’” Secularism, that is, is merely a variety of modernism. Are there any modernists left? The only ones I know are fundamentalist Christians. Are these Johnson’s undesignated opponents? Much of his other writing suggests that they are.
And indeed, Johnson makes it clear that his mission is to convert the converted. He doesn’t like what he calls double-mindedness among believers, that is their own world of experience and the world of experience reported in the gospels. “Christians,” he exhorts, “need a conversion of the imagination.”
“ Revelation is a process of interpretation.” Imagination is the still small voice which can show the truth of biblical myths as they were meant to be understood, including of course the various miracle stories. What is relevant is their liberating power to show an alternative imaginative (not to say imaginary) world: “The language of heaven and earth enables readers to ‘see’ a world that does not offer itself easily to immediate comprehension.”
Fair enough. I can understand such an idea. In fact it makes sense to me that fiction – narrative construction of reality – is as close as we come to the sacred. But his co-religionists will no doubt smell the scent of several ancient heresies in this assertion. In any case, a poetic interpretation of miracles doesn’t do very much for the credibility of either traditional Christianity or for Johnson’s insistence on their importance other than as edifying fantasy.
What he’s admitting of course is that the purportedly miraculous events never actually happened the way they are reported. He urges us to imagine creation itself as the fundamental miracle which we all can experience. So much for the resurrection of Jesus and the other gospel-propaganda then. Changing water into steam, not wine, is the real miracle.
這段話的重點在於「never actually happened the way they are reported」。我想我們從正確的基督教（後自由神學）視角會說：「神蹟敘事」與「寓言」最大的差距在於，寓言是一個純粹為了傳遞寓意而架空的故事。但 「神蹟敘事」是記載「發生過的事」。但對於「發生了什麼事件」的解釋，「帶有神學想像力的人」與（LTJ口中）「想像力貧乏的純物質主義者」自然出現不同版本的敘事。
One aspect of their lives where people like to be in sync with those they meet online is in religious beliefs. Education levels and age also play a strong role—but an asymmetric one: …female desirability starts high at 18, then drops sharply with age. Male desirability starts low, rises until about 50, then tails off gently (see chart). A postgraduate education makes men more desirable, while reducing desirability for women.
此處所言的宗教信仰的文化／信仰意識同一性（ideological unity）顯然是跨地域（trans-location） 性、是心靈和文化意義重大的。但未明示的則是何以 a unified set of ideology 能夠跨地域地散布，而不是因地域而各自有別（如同神學和宗教研究領域，我們常講的 « contextualized theologies »）？
For those who find popularity on the apps, endless choice can become something of a burden. Blessing Mark, a 24-year-old massage therapist from Lagos, Nigeria, uses Tinder for two purposes. She finds clients (rather as your correspondent found people through Tinder in researching this piece) and she seeks out romantic partners.
Others talk of the exhaustion of trawling through endless matches, going on disappointing dates with some of them, then having to drag themselves back onto the net when it goes nowhere. There is a loneliness, too. The internet uncouples dating from other social activities which might comfort a shy or spurned heart in the offline world; love’s vicissitudes can be harder when taken away from the context of a club or church hall.
It is tempting to hope that people made unhappy by online dating will stop. But people do things that make them unhappy all the time, and businesses often profit from their sadness. Dating apps want existing users to keep using them, maybe even to start paying for new features. Desperation is not necessarily their enemy; the achievement of domestic bliss is certainly not their friend.
Luna is attempting to build a reputation market. Good dating etiquette—sending messages to people when warranted, responding to them, behaving nicely if a date ensues—will be rewarded with an in-app currency called Stars. These can then be spent to send messages to popular users, or exchanged for cash, or donated to a charity. The founders hope this focus on experience will keep their business goals and their users’ personal goals well aligned.
…the experience of love will continue to be ineffable, and its pursuit strewn with hardships. But making the path that bit easier to navigate seems likely to make many lives better, and many people happier. That is no mean thing.