[文摘] 美國最佳神學院校排名(2012)

以下是 R. R. Reno 今年對美國神學院校的綜合學術排名(以及這些學校中值得追隨的名師):

1. 杜克大學神學院(Duke Divinity School):Stanley Hauerwas, Paul Griffiths, Reinhard Huetter, Amy Laura Hall, Warren Smith,  Richard Hays, Ellen Davis, Kavin Rowe.

1. 聖母大學神學系(University of Notre Dame Department of Theology):Cyril O’Regan, John Betz, Francesca Murphy, Ann Astell, John Cavadini, Gary Anderson.

3. 美國天主教大學(Catholic University of America School of Theology and Religious Studies):Michael Root, Joseph Capizzi, Christopher Ruddy. David Schindler, Nicholas Healy, and Michael Hanby

4. 多倫多大學威克理夫學院(Wycliffe College and the Toronto School of Theology at the University of Toronto):Joseph Mangina, Chris Seitz, Ephraim Radner

5. 波士頓學院(Boston College School of Theology and Ministry):Khaled Anatolios,

6. 普林斯頓神學院(Princeton Theological Seminary):George Hunsinger, Bruce McCormack, Ellen Charry. John Bowlin

7. 南衛理大學柏金斯神學院(Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University):Bruce Marshall, Billy Abraham

8. 耶魯大學神學院(Yale Divinity School):Kathryn Tanner, Miroslav Volf,  Jennifer Herdt, and John Hare

9. 馬奎特大學(Marquette University):Stephen Long, Mickey Mattox

9. 戴頓大學(University of Dayton):Matthew Levering

最佳福音派神學院(Evangelical Honorary mention) :

  • 惠敦學院(Wheaton College)
  • 三一福音神學院(Trinity Evangelical Divinity School):Kevin Vanhoozer

與往年的排名相比,變動不大。

Reno 衡量的標準包含多個面向。 Reno 的中心命題可以姑且稱為「活路神學」,大方向上他評估這些學院神學的學術前瞻性、正統教會導向。Reno 基督新教轉奉天主教的教會背景、後自由神學倫理學的學術關懷,使他能從普世大公基督教的角度看待神學教育,不獨厚個別宗派,同時拒絕自由神學、世俗化神學、異端思想、基要派等弊端。Reno 指出杜克、聖母、多倫多威克理夫三校已經成為後自由神學重鎮,普神和耶魯雖然不算在發展後自由神學,但幾位重要的學者至少也是後自由神學思想的親近人士。

然而個人認為 Reno 雖然十分正確地排除了一些在死路上發展的保守宗派神學(如偏基要的改革宗和浸信會)和自由派世俗神學(如天主教修正主義),卻很可惜地漏掉了公共神學運動-”the more liberal project of integrating social-cultural-psychological-historical variables”。

Reno 的名單太偏重那些對於服事教會、服事基督徒有直接作用的「認信神學」(confessional theology),反倒是「公共神學」(public theology)運動被忽略了。認信神學在方法論和表述能力上有其侷限,它能夠幫助教會活得更像是一個(屬天的)另類社會,但我們無法光靠它贏得學術戰場。公共神學則要求我們以實證上嚴謹的方式溝通和建構信仰。以此角度觀之,我會填上以下這五所學校,再加上已經在名單中的 Yale Divinity School,作為研究公共神學的首選:

  • 維吉尼亞大學宗教研究所(University of Virginia  Departement of Religious Studies):Charles Matthews, Kevin Hart, Paul Dafydd Jones, Peter Ochs
  • 普林斯頓大學宗教系(Princeton University Departement of Religion): Eric Gregory, Jeffrey Stout
  • 芝加哥大學神學院(University of Chicago Divinity School):Jean-Luc Marion, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Dwight N. Hopkins, Kevin Hector, Martha C. Nussbaum
  • 哈佛大學神學院(Harvard Divinity School): Harvey Cox, Ronald Thiemann, Diane Eck, Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza
  • 范德堡大學神學院(Vanderbilt Divinity School):Paul DeHart, Douglas Meeks, Victor Anderson

代價是:公共神學不會只繞著聖經的權威轉,因而可能「聖經研究」會居於次要,甚至邊緣化的地位。然而在一個世俗化和無神論為主的社會(如亞洲國家當前的世代),公共神學具有極大的需要。相對於認信神學只能在佈道場合跟非信徒對話,而公共神學--既是公共的,就要讓非基督徒環繞在自己的身邊--是要在各學科領域都佔有一席為、作光和鹽。

因此,我建議有志發展公共神學的人,更必須先具備強大的研經能力、美好且穩定的教會和團契生活。

以下是 Reno 原文。除了思想層面外,他也提到一些學校獎助學金狀況,以及種種影響學生受教品質的辦學因素。

A 2012 Ranking of Graduate Programs in Theology
Nov 26, 2012
R.R. Reno

Where’s the best place to do graduate study in theology? I’ve done some rankings in the past, first in 2006 and then again in 2009. A longer ranking with a more developed rationale appeared in the pages of First Things in 2010. Some friends prodded me recently: have I changed my mind? Yes and No.

R.R. RenoMy criteria are as follows: (1) orthodoxy and support for graduate students who want to think with the Church, (2) intellectual rigor, (3) commitment to students, and (4) financial aid.

The top programs remain Duke Divinity School and the University of Notre Dame. Duke continues to be the program that best combines the intellectual and cultural confidence of the liberal mainline Protestant tradition (Duke’s heritage is Methodist) with a fresh, postliberal conviction that in today’s academic culture we need to focus on renewing and deepening the traditional and apostolic character of theology. That’s the legacy of Stanley Hauerwas, a longtime professor at Duke, and it’s an approach widely shared among the leading faculty: Paul Griffiths, Reinhard Huetter, Amy Laura Hall, Warren Smith, and others.

Duke is also the best place for anyone who wants to combine theology with biblical studies. Richard Hays (currently Dean), Ellen Davis, and Kavin Rowe provide leadership within the guild of biblical scholars. Hauerwas (Gospel of Matthew) and Griffiths (Song of Songs) have written biblical commentary. Huetter plans to write one as well.

You shall know them by their fruits. There are important, creative, and influential theologians in the rising generation of scholars, and I think it’s fair to say that a disproportionate number did their doctoral degrees at Duke over the last two decades.

Notre Dame’s greatest strength is Notre Dame. The university has outstanding Christian scholars in many disciplines. As a consequence, theology is not remote or isolated. It’s a place where you can get a theological education that takes for granted the intellectual and cultural centrality of faith, and that’s a wonderful and precious opportunity, especially given the fact that academia as a whole is largely secular.

The theology department has some superb faculty: Cyril O’Regan, John Betz, Francesca Murphy, Ann Astell, John Cavadini, Gary Anderson, and others. Like their peers at Duke, they’re broadly postliberal. They see the challenges we face in an increasingly secular culture—and they respond by returning to the apostolic tradition. They also care about their students, which combined with the financial resources of Notre Dame makes for a very congenial and supportive environment for doctoral study in theology.

After Duke and Notre Dame the programs aren’t so uniformly attractive, but there remain some very good options.

#3: Catholic University. It’s an increasingly important place for theology these days. The main vehicle for graduate study is the School of Theology and Religious Studies. It’s been a troubled program for decades, often reflecting the complex problems facing Catholic theology in America: the dead-end of Rahnerian and so-called contextual theologies, a shift toward lay faculty and students, conflicts with the Church’s magisterium, and so forth.

But there are some fine people teaching there now, including Michael Root, Joseph Capizzi, and Christopher Ruddy. Moreover, Catholic University has a number of federated programs that give graduate students access to excellent faculty—or even alternative paths to graduate degrees. David Schindler, Nicholas Healy, and Michael Hanby teach at the John Paul II Center for Marriage and Family. The Dominican House of Studies provides students with instruction in a confident and intellectually resurgent Thomism.

There are two problems at Catholic University. First, the financial resources aren’t sufficient to support graduate study fully. Second, the federated programs remain inadequately integrated and coordinated. That said, there’s one significant and unique asset: a decidedly Roman and clerical tradition. It’s an illusion to imagine that theology can be done at a distance from the Church. That’s not a danger at Catholic U.

#4: Wycliffe College and the Toronto School of Theology at the University of Toronto. Unlike Catholic U. there’s no theology department. Instead, the program is made up of federated colleges and seminaries. Wycliffe College is an evangelical Anglican seminary that also sponsors masters and doctoral students in theology. The college has some superb faculty, such as Joseph Mangina, Chris Seitz, and Ephraim Radner. Like the best professors at Duke, they’re committed to the postliberal project, broadly understood, giving the program personality and purpose. Negative: not enough money to give a full cohort of graduate students sufficient financial support.

#5: Boston College. When I look down the list of theology faculty at Boston College I tend to yawn. Many are part of the Catholic theological establishment in the U.S., which has become largely uncreative and uninteresting. But if you add in the School of Theology and Ministry (formed when the nearby Jesuit seminary was recently merged into Boston College) there are lots of professors to work with, including Khaled Anatolios, one of the most important scholars of patristic theology. In any event, they must be doing something right, because they produce good students who go on to do good work. Positive: enough money to support graduate students, which perhaps explains why their recent graduates have a winsome zeal and commitment to theology.

#6: Princeton Theological Seminary. This is undoubtedly the best place to study Karl Barth, whether in the style of George Hunsinger or Bruce McCormack. But it’s more than that. Ellen Charry and John Bowlin provide alternatives. The doctoral programs are run through the seminary. This provides a Church-focused environment that prevents theology from becoming an academic game. Positives: good financial support for graduate students and access to the vast resources of Princeton University.

In the past I’ve also included the religion department at Princeton University. It’s a unique program in many ways, one that supports and encourages graduate students. Eric Gregory is a fine mentor for students who want to think with the Church. But the more I think about it, the more I find myself coming to the conclusion that the program as a whole isn’t right for someone who wants to be trained and formed as a theologian. The program is too much a creature of the university, not the Church. You’re better off doing your degree at Princeton Theological Seminary while taking classes in the religion department.

#7: Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University.By and large the program reflects the drabness of liberal Protestantism, but Bruce Marshall and Billy Abraham teach there. Abraham has trained a generation of excellent theologians, and I regard Marshall as one of the most important theologians working today, Protestant or Catholic.

#8: Yale University. The liberal Protestant tradition need not be sterile, and at Yale Divinity School it’s not. Kathryn Tanner is a very good mentor. Miroslav Volf has a fine theological imagination. Jennifer Herdt and John Hare do creative work in Christian Ethics. For a student who has a First Things view of the world, you’ll meet resistance, but for the most part it’ll be smart and useful.

#9 & #10: In the past I’ve given Marquette University good marks. Lately staffing has changed. Ralph Del Colle passed away earlier in the year, and Alexander Golitzen left to become an Orthodox bishop. This tilts the program in the direction of dead-end liberal Catholicism. There are still good folks there (Mickey Mattox, Stephen Long), but it’s less congenial than it once was. The University of Dayton is moving in the other direction, adding some new and interesting people in recent years. It’s worth a look.

As I review my list, I see that it’s tilted in a slightly Catholic direction. Mea culpa. I also see that I have no Evangelical institutions, although Wycliffe and Princeton Theological Seminary claim aspects of that heritage. In the past I’ve given Wheaton and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School a nod, but in all honesty I’m not well enough informed to have a right to an opinion on these programs.

I hope this informal ranking is helpful. Remember to read with a grain of salt. There’s no substitute for talking to current graduate students. They have the goods on the professors. And don’t forget that studying theology, the queen of the sciences, is almost always intrinsically gratifying and worthwhile. Enjoy.

R.R. Reno is Editor of First Things. He is the general editor of the Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible and author of the volume on GenesisHis previous “On the Square” articles can be found here.

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3 réflexions sur « [文摘] 美國最佳神學院校排名(2012) »

  1. 請問作者,喬治城大學有神學院嗎?因觀諸多資料仍有不明,故留言詢問,有勞指點,萬謝。

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