美國高教短打 2008.0730-2008.0825

  1. 0730 Japan Announces Plan to Enroll More Foreign Students
  2. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4899/japan-announces-plan-to-enroll-more-foreign-students

    日本計畫招收更多國際學生,具體目標是在12年內達到30萬人,約為現今人數119,000的2.5倍。

    改進方案包含:放寬簽證限制、改善居住生活品質、加強日語外文教學,以及幫助留學生畢業後在日本當地找工作。目前已有30所大學被列為重點,開辦國際學生事務中心。

      Tokyo — Japanese government officials announced today some details of an ambitious plan to nearly triple the country’s enrollment of foreign students, to 300,000 in 12 years, the Asahi Shimbun newspaper reported.

      The plan, disclosed amid a looming enrollment crisis at Japanese universities, will ease visa restrictions, improve accommodations, increase Japanese-language teaching, and help foreign students find work in the country after graduation.

      About 30 of Japan’s top universities will be designated as key centers for the “opening up of higher education to foreign students,” according to a joint announcement by the ministries of education, justice, and foreign affairs, and other bureaucracies. Specific details on each measure were not provided.

      About 119,000 foreign students are now at Japanese universities, down from a peak of 122,000 in 2005. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda pledged to raise the figure to 300,000 by 2020 in a January policy speech. But today’s statement, which includes proposals to seek funds in next year’s federal budget, is the first concrete sign that Japan’s slow-moving bureaucracy is gearing up to bring the plan to fruition. —David McNeill

  3. 0731 Transfer Students Make Up Almost 20% of 4-Year Colleges’ Enrollments, Report Says
  4. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4905/transfer-students-make-up-almost-20-of-4-year-colleges-enrollments-report-says

    美國四年制大學畢業生,目前大約有五分之一是從兩年制社區大學插大進入的。另有大學四分之一的大學生早在高中便開始修習大學學分。

    Nearly one out of five students who enrolled for the first time at a four-year college in 2003-4 were transfer students, according to a report issued today by the U.S. Education Department’s statistical arm, the National Center for Education Statistics.

    The report, “Descriptive Summary of 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students: Three Years Later,” covers a range of characteristics of those students from the year they first enrolled until 2006. As a result of that short, three-year window, the report does not contain data on their graduation rates or other evidence of their educational outcome. The report also notes that about one-fourth of the students earned college credit while in high school. —Andrew Mytelka

     

  5. 0731 Court Orders U. of Florida to Recognize Christian Fraternity
  6. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4907/court-orders-u-of-florida-to-recognize-christian-fraternity

    佛羅里達大學和校內的宗教社團「基督教兄弟會」打官司,結果敗訴。如今校方需正式承認這個社團。

    事件起因是校方起先認定基督教兄弟會要求入社成員都必須是基督徒這點違反了學術環境內的宗教平等法案,因而不予承認。社方學生代表轉而在2007年7月向法院控告校方違反宗教自由精神。學生代表得到外界基督教律師社團相助,如今勝訴。

    Afederal appeals court ordered the University of Florida on Wednesday to recognize a Christian fraternity while a trial court hears the group’s lawsuit over the university’s decision to deny it official recognition, according to The Independent Florida Alligator, the campus’s student newspaper.

    The university has refused to recognize the fraternity, Beta Upsilon Chi, as an official student group because its requirement that members be Christians violates the university’s policy on religious discrimination.

    The fraternity sued the university in July 2007. After the trial court denied the group’s request for a preliminary injunction, which would require the university to recognize it while the case proceeds, the fraternity appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. That court issued the order on Wednesday to the university.

    The fraternity is being represented by the Christian Legal Society and the Alliance Defense Fund, which have handled similar cases. —Beckie Supiano

     

  7. 0801 SUNY System Opens Doors to 150 Students From Chinese Province Hit by Earthquake
  8. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4911/suny-system-opens-doors-to-150-students-from-chinese-province-hit-by-earthquake

    紐約州立大學系統提供150個獎學金學生名額,給中國川震的受災學生。紐約州大的22所分校提供校園環境,並500萬美金的獎學金,讓四川地方各受災大學的二、三年級學生得以在美國完成大學學業,學雜費全免。這些學生的英語水平和學術表現均有先經過校方審核,他們並必須承諾一旦完成學業,將返回家鄉貢獻心力,改善地方經濟。

    This fall, 150 Chinese undergraduates from Sichuan province, which was hit with a devastating earthquake in May, will be studying at the State University of New York, free of charge.

    In exchange, they have agreed to return home after the academic year ends to help rebuild the local economy.

    The deal, which involves 22 SUNY campuses, was worked out between the university system and the Chinese government. Megan Galbraith, a SUNY spokeswoman, said the university planned to raise about $5-million from private donors to cover the students’ tuition and living expenses. The Chinese government has agreed to pay travel and visa costs.

    The students, mostly sophomores and juniors, are all Sichuan residents and enrolled at one of four national universities or at colleges in Sichuan. Both their academic performance and English-language abilities were reviewed before they were accepted, SUNY said in a news release. Academics from China and SUNY matched the students to particular campuses based on their academic interests and available space. —Beth McMurtrie

  9. 0802 Study Finds Continuing Shortage of Community-College Leaders
  10. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4920/study-finds-continuing-shortage-of-community-college-leaders

    美國社區大學在2012年將面臨校長退休潮,屆時共有近八成的老校長要退休,未來恐將面對青黃不接的學術陣痛。此次受訪有415位社區大學校長,平均年齡58歲,僅有三位女性。他們平日主要的職責是和政商打交道,包括募款以及爭取司法空間。

    此外一項調查發現,社區大學的研究所自1983年來至1997年間已萎縮了將近八成,這些人本來正是下一波可能的校長接班人選。

    Community colleges face a looming wave of presidential retirements as well as a shortage of qualified replacements, according to a newly released study by researchers at Iowa State University that echoes concerns dating back nearly a decade.

    The new study, of 415 community-college presidents, found that 79 percent will retire by 2012. It also found a 78-percent drop in the number of degrees awarded to graduates of programs in community-college leadership from 1983 to 1997.

    “Those would be the people who would really be in the chute to take the place of those who were retiring,” said Christopher Duree, a research associate at Iowa State who led the study.

    Presidents in the study were, on average, 58 years old, and only a third were women. According to the survey, their two most pressing concerns were fund raising and working with lawmakers. —Paul Fain

     

  11. 0806 Report Advocates Sharing of Syllabi Online
  12. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4941/a-plea-for-syllabus-sharing

    美國的約翰威廉波普高等教育政策研究中心呼籲,各大學應敦促教授在選課前公布課程大綱。此舉不但可讓學生在選課時有更多的比較基準,也能增加學術同僚之間的資訊交流。其研究報告並公開讚揚西雅圖華盛頓大學和杜克大學課程系統的資訊透明開放。

    Universities should encourage greater openness by requiring faculty members to post course syllabi online before the beginning of the term, argues a new report by the John William Pope Center for Higher Education Policy.

    It doesn’t have to be the full and final version of the syllabus, with complete rules on grading and classroom demeanor. But providing detailed course descriptions and reading lists lets students know what they’re signing up for and makes professors accountable for what they teach, argues Jay Schalin, a senior writer at the nonprofit institute, in North Carolina.

    The benefits, writes Mr. Schalin, would be fourfold: An online repository of syllabi would help students make informed course decisions, allow for comparisons across institutions, enable information sharing among faculty members, and “expose a professor’s deviation from normal expectations or acceptable academic standards.”

    Plenty of professors are leery of syllabus sharing, for fear it might lead to syllabus stealing. But the report, “Opening Up the Classroom: Greater Transparency Through Better, More Accessible Course Information,” highlights online systems at the University of Washington and Duke University that give students information on a course’s content, method of instruction, reading list, exams, and assignments before they register for classes. —Paula Wasley

     

  13. 0807 LeTourneau U. Helps Students With Airline Baggage Fees
  14. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4949/letourneau-u-helps-students-with-airline-baggage-fees

    油價上漲,美國德州的樂圖諾大學為讓遠道而來的學生感受到校方善意,為每位學生支付15美元的飛機行李運費。

    As students jet off to college this fall, they’ll be hit with new baggage fees that airlines have imposed to offset increased fuel costs.

    LeTourneau University, in Longview, Texas, has decided to ease the burden on new students (and perhaps start off on the right foot with them) by paying $15 toward their baggage fees.

    “We thought we’d lighten the load for them by offering to help carry their bags,” Linda Fitzhugh, vice president for enrollment services, said in a news release.

    The money will be deposited into the students’ accounts after they present their airline tickets to admissions counselors. Ms. Fitzhugh estimates that about half of the 180 new students from out of state will take advantage of the offer. —Don Troop

     

  15. 0807 S. Korea Plans to Double Intake of Foreign Students Within 2 Years
  16. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4952/s-korea-plans-to-double-intake-of-foreign-students-within-2-years

    南韓也打算在2010年將自己國內的國際學生招收人數提高到10萬人,約是目前的兩倍。具體方案內容包括將現行發放給國際學生的獎學金名額加碼一倍,至3000人,以及放寬簽證限制、改善居住品質。

    南韓目前的國際學生僅佔本國大學生的1%,然而每年卻對外輸入22萬名國際學生,其中有30%流向美國,而且多半有去無回。為改善這樣的單邊不平衡,南韓決定先以亞洲和中東為這波招生目標。

    具南韓政策發言人所指,將國際學生人數提升到10萬人將能為本國帶來1億5700萬美金的經濟效益,且能為當前的少子化南韓社會帶來刺激。

    South Korea will double the number of foreign students enrolled at its universities to 100,000 by 2010, the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology has said. The plan, mainly targeting Asian and Middle Eastern students, will also double the number of scholarships available to foreign students to 3,000, ease visa restrictions and increase accommodations, according to The Korea Times.

    Seoul is trying to correct a lopsided international-education system that annually sends 220,000 students to study abroad — about 30 percent of them to the United States — while accepting very few in return. Foreign students make up less than 1 percent of total enrollment at South Korean universities, the lowest proportion among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    “If the number of foreign students increases to 100,000,” a ministry official, Shin Kang-tak, told The Korea Times, “we can earn 160 billion won [$157-million]. Foreigners graduating from Korean universities will also serve as a driving force in this country, which is suffering from a low birth rate.’’

    In a separate announcement, President Bush, who is visiting Seoul this week, agreed with his South Korean counterpart, Lee Myung-bak, to set up a program allowing up to 5,000 Korean college students or recent graduates to stay in the United States for up to 18 months to study English and work as interns. —David McNeill

  17. 0808 American Universities Maintain Dominance in Latest Shanghai Rankings
  18. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4954/american-universities-maintain-dominance-in-latest-shanghai-rankings

    最新一期上海交大的世界大學排名,美國仍然獨占鼇頭。前20名中除第4名的劍橋大學、第9名的牛津大學、第19名的東京大學外,其餘皆為美國的大學。哈佛大學、史單佛大學、加州柏克萊大學位居前三。世界前百大學中有54所美國大學;而中國高等教育的表現儘管仍不及日本,但已較以往取得進步,在亞太地區前百大學中佔18位。

    與此相對的是法國高等教育的積弱不振。其國內高等教育的龍頭巴黎第六大學在此報告中排名42位,較去年下滑三個位置。種種不利現象已引起法國國內一片教育改革聲浪。

    上月曾有法國參議員提出應針對歐洲大學的特色制訂出一套排名系統,以制衡目前已深植人心的上海交大排名印象。該排名所使用的基準被認為是偏袒英語學術機構。

    The Academic Ranking of World Universities, published annually by China’s Shanghai Jiao Tong University, has been posted online.

    American institutions continue to dominate the top echelons of the influential list: 54 percent of the top 100 universities are in the United States, according to an analysis, with Harvard retaining the top spot, followed by Stanford and the University of California at Berkeley.

    The only three non-American universities in the top 20 are the University of Cambridge, at number four, the University of Oxford, at number 10, and Tokyo University, in the 19th spot.

    Chinese universities continue to be outperformed by other Asian institutions in regional powerhouses like Japan, but have improved their showing since last year and now occupy 18 spots in the Top 100 Asia Pacific Universities.

    The list is not due to be published officially until August 15, but the new compilation has already generated a flurry of headlines in France, where the highest-ranking institution, Université de Paris VI (Pierre et Marie Curie), comes in three places down from last year at number 42.

    Education minister Valerie Pecresse used the relatively weak showing of French institutions to underscore the need for reforms championed by the government.

    The French Senate last month “proposed developing a new European university ranking system to counter the powerful Shanghai world ranking, which is said to favor English-language institutions.”—Aisha Labi

     

  19. 0812 What’s the Word for ‘University’ in Afghanistan? Parliament Can’t Decide
  20. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4976/whats-the-word-for-university-in-afghanistan-parliament-cant-decide

    「大學」一詞的阿富汗文怎麼翻?國會吵翻天。普什圖和達利與同為官方語言的阿富汗,儘管只有七所國際上認可的大學,卻必須為其他國內的學術機構找個通用的翻譯。前者為採用阿拉伯字母拼寫的伊朗印歐語種,為東方、南方的阿富汗人所使用,後者由古波斯的法爾斯(farsi)語所演化,書寫近似阿拉伯字母但略有不同,為西方、北方的阿富汗人所使用。

    Afghanistan’s lawmakers spent today’s session of parliament debating the contentious issue of which word to use for “university,” the Reuters news agency reported.

    Afghanistan boasts just seven universities, according to the Europa World of Learning, but how to refer to this handful of institutions has stymied parliamentarians. Pashtu speakers, who are mainly from the south and east, and Dari-speaking Tajiks, from the north and west, are at odds over which words to use for terms like “university” and “student,” and for academic titles, Reuters reported.

    One parliamentarian, Ahmad Ali Jebrayeli, told the news agency that some of the lawmakers favored “the use of Dari expressions by Dari speakers and Pashtu words for those who speak Pashtu,” but others preferred “the old-style Pashtu words, because some of the expressions used by Dari speakers are actually Iranian Farsi.”

    The linguistic nuances are controversial enough that a journalist for a state newspaper was recently fined “for using the Persian word for university in a report,” the Reuters article noted.

    Parliament failed to agree on a resolution and decided instead to form a committee to look into the problem, Mr. Jebrayeli told Reuters. —Aisha Labi

     

  21. 0812 Online Universities Are Gaining Acceptance, Pollster Says
  22. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4981/online-universities-are-gaining-acceptance-pollster-says

    以往線上教學總被視為品質、成效皆不如課室教學,如今這樣的觀感正在學生與老師心中改變。約翰若格比近期一本新書提出了他對這個轉變的觀察。

    National surveys show that a majority of Americans think online universities offer a lower quality of education than do traditional institutions. But a prominent pollster, John Zogby, says in a book being released on Tuesday that it won’t be long before American society takes to distance education as warmly as it has embraced game-changing innovations like microbrewed beers, Flexcars, and “the simple miracle of Netflix.”

    The factor that will close that “enthusiasm gap” is the growing use of distance education by well-respected universities, Mr. Zogby predicts in the book, The Way We’ll Be: The Zogby Report on the Transformation of the American Dream (Random House).

    The book, which is based on Zogby International polls and other studies, also touches on public attitudes toward politics, consumer habits, spirituality, and international affairs, and on what men and women really want from one another. Mr. Zogby says polls detect signs of society’s emerging resistance to big institutions, and its de-emphasis on things and places. “We’re redefining geography and space,” he says — and a widening acceptance of online education is part of that trend.

    Today there is still a “cultural lag” between the public’s desire for flexible ways to take college courses and what the most-established players offer, Mr. Zogby said in an interview with The Chronicle. “There’s a sense that those who define the standard haven’t caught on yet,” he said.

    But Mr. Zogby writes that polling by his organization shows that attitudes about online education are changing fast. His polling also points to other challenges that colleges will face as they race to serve a worldwise generation of 18- to 29-year-olds that Mr. Zogby calls “First Globals.”

    In one 2007 poll of more 5,000 adults, Zogby International found that 30 percent of respondents were taking or had taken an online course, and an additional 50 percent said they would consider taking one. Those numbers might skew a little high, he said, because the poll was conducted online and the definition of an online course was broad, including certificate programs or training modules offered by employers.

    Only 27 percent of respondents agreed that “online universities and colleges provide the same quality of education” as traditional institutions. Among those 18 to 24 years old, only 23 percent agreed.

    An even greater proportion of those polled said it was their perception that employers and academic professionals thought more highly of traditional institutions than online ones.

    Rapid Shift in Attitude

    Yet in another national poll in December 2007, conducted for Excelsior College, 45 percent of the 1,004 adults surveyed felt “an online class carries the same value as a traditional-classroom class,” and 43 percent of 1,545 chief executives and small-business owners agreed that a degree earned by distance learning “is as credible” as one from a traditional campus-based program.

    Differing attitudes in two polls taken within a year, Mr. Zogby said, show that “the gap was closing” — and he said that wasn’t as surprising as it might seem. As with changing perceptions about other cultural phenomena, “these paradigm shifts really are moving at lightning speed.”

    That, said Mr. Zogby, is why he writes about online universities in a chapter — “Dematerializing the Paradigm” — that discusses the rise of car-sharing companies like Flexcar (now merged with Zipcar), the emergence of Internet blogs as a source of news and information, and the popularity of microbrewed beer.

    And while it may be true that microbrews and Zipcars, at least, are still very much niche products, Mr. Zogby says they are signs of transcendent change — just like the distance-education courses that are being offered by more and more insitutions across the country. “When you add up all the niche products, it’s a market unto itself,” he said.

    In the book, Mr. Zogby also highlights the emerging influence of the First Globals, whom his book calls “the most outward-looking and accepting generation in American history.” First Globals, he says, are more socially tolerant and internationally aware.

    It is these First Globals, he writes, who are shaping what he says is nothing short of a “fundamental reorientation of the American character away from wanton consumption and toward a new global citizenry in an age of limited resources.”

    Higher education, he said in the interview, needs to take notice and adapt. These days, he said, students are much more likely to have experienced other cultures first-hand, either as tourists or because they’ve immigrated from someplace else. Whether college for them is a traditional complex of buildings or an interactive online message board, said Mr. Zogby, “there is a different student on campus.” —Goldie Blumenstyk

     

  23. 0812 Tuition Increase in Britain Has Not Deterred Applicants, Report Says
  24. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4982/tuition-increase-in-britain-has-not-deterred-applicants-report-says

    英國學費漲價,嚇不跑大學生。一項報告指出目前英國大學收到學生的申請仍較三年前增加了約10個百分比。然而調查者也警告調漲學費的政策主事者和校方切莫以為調漲學費的政策已然成功,其分析指出這幾年來英國的大學生政經社群結構並未獲得衝擊性的改變,經濟及身心弱勢者、少數族群受教與入學的比例仍研究偏低便是例證。而這點還亟待大學著手改善。

    The tuition increase that went into effect at English universities in 2006 has not deterred students from applying to those institutions, according to a report released today by the trade association for British universities’ vice chancellors.

    The Universities U.K. publication, “Variable Tuition Fees in England: Assessing Their Impact on Students and Higher Education Institutions,” is the third annual report the group has prepared on the issue, but the first that reveals the full impact on enrollments since the new rates went into effect.

    The vice chancellors’ group lobbied hard for the controversial tuition increase, termed “variable fees” because institutions can in theory charge full-time undergraduates any amount up to a government-dictated annual cap of about $6,000.

    “Over all there is nothing in the available data that indicates that the introduction of variable fees in England has yet had any lasting impact on the level or pattern of demand for full-time undergraduate education,” the report says.

    But, in a development that opponents of the tuition increase will cite as vindication of their fears, the report notes that there has been “no significant change in the ethnic, social class, or age profile of accepted applicants across the four years 2004/05-2007/08,” even though the number of full-time undergraduate applicants rose 10 percent in England and 9 percent in Britain as a whole. The government introduced measures to encourage young people from underrepresented groups to apply to universities when it passed the contentious tuition increase.

    The University and College Union, Britain’s main faculty union, which represents 120,000 academics, issued a pointed statement warning institutions and politicians not to use the report to claim that the introduction of higher tuition rates has been a success. The union said that the failure of universities to increase the number of students from disadvantaged and minority backgrounds, despite the government’s insistence that higher tuition would not disproportionately hurt those groups, was “extremely worrying.” —Aisha Labi

     

  25. 0813 Global Headhunters Are Snaring Ivy League Administrators
  26. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4986/global-headhunters-are-snaring-ivy-league-administrators

    長春藤教育行政人才受到國際網羅。近來劍橋和牛津不約兒童地挖角了耶魯的學院長,兩校皆是超級有錢的大學,而此一挖角的舉動也顯示他們著重於人才的募款能力。

    原本在美國,賓州大學的華頓商學院也曾委託獵人頭公司,企望從國際間找來下一任的院長,然而所得人選名單最終令人失望。如今他們的院長還是一個美國人。

    Foreign universities are increasingly looking to the United States for their leaders, Newsweek reports, citing recent hires of Yale University provosts by the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford.

    The trend, which so far has been restricted to über-wealthy universities, appears to be driven by a new emphasis on fund raising. Government support for higher education is falling in many countries, and Americans are ahead of the game in knowing how to tap private donors.

    The talent flow is not going both ways, the magazine reports. The University of Pennsylvania asked a search firm to go global when seeking a new dean for its Wharton business school. The international nominations were underwhelming, and the university ended up hiring an American, Thomas S. Robertson. —Paul Fain

     

  27. 0813 Judge Rejects Christian Schools’ Complaint of Bias in U. of California Decisions on Courses
  28. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4988/judge-rejects-christian-schools-complaint-of-bias-in-u-of-california-decisions-on-courses

    加州大學拒絕承認南加州基督教高級中學的學分而遭受控告,但法院宣告加州大學勝訴。這起告訴肇始於2005年,該高中認為加州大學拒絕承認其提供給學生的生物、英語、憲政、歷史、世界宗教等學分,是出於宗教歧視,然而法官在仔細地比較兩造對課程內容的要求之後認定加州大學並未違憲,其所採用的標準於理有據,而該基督教高中的課程並未達到加州大學的學術要求。

    A federal judge has ruled that the University of California did not discriminate against Christian high schools and their students in deciding that some of their courses failed to meet its academic requirements for college applicants.

    A school in Southern California, an association of Christian schools, and several students had sued the university in 2005, arguing that its refusal to honor the courses had violated their rights to freedom of speech and religion. The judge in the case, S. James Otero of the U.S. District Court in Los Angeles, rejected some of their arguments last March, when he ruled that the university’s policy for evaluating high-school courses was not unconstitutional on its face. But he allowed the plaintiffs to continue pressing claims that applications of the policy in decisions regarding specific courses had violated their rights.

    In his latest ruling, issued Friday, Judge Otero rejected a number of the plaintiffs’ motions on procedural grounds, then evaluated the schools’ and the university’s arguments regarding decisions on five courses, in biology, English, government, history, and world religions. In each case, the judge found that the university’s decisions had been based on rational considerations and had showed no animus toward the plaintiffs.

    In a written statement, Wyatt R. Hume, the university’s provost and executive vice president for academic and health affairs, praised the judge’s ruling. “As we have said all along,” he said, “the question the university addresses in reviewing courses is not whether they have religious content, but whether they provide adequate instruction in the subject matter.”

    Robert Tyler, a lawyer representing the schools, told the Associated Press that he had already appealed Judge Otero’s latest decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. —Charles Huckabee

     

  29. 0813 Canada to Offer Permanent-Resident Status to Eligible Foreign Students
  30. http://chronicle.com/news/article/4990/canada-to-offer-permanent-resident-status-to-eligible-foreign-students

    加拿大通過新法案,讓國際學生都能在畢業後在本地取得工作機會並得到永久居留權。

    以往學生若希望留下來,總是必須在畢業後離境重新申請,並要等上好幾年。如今學生不但就學期間可以自由在校外找工作,凡在加拿大就學兩年以上並取得學位的畢業生也可以留在加拿大找工作為期至多三年。其後通過專業能力的審核和英語或法語的應用能力檢驗後,就可以申請永久居留權。

    加拿大此舉顯然是希望在目前的經濟情勢下,能夠維持與英國或澳洲這些國家的競爭力。這項政策起初將先開放12,000-18,000個名額給每年的申請者,並在未來會增加到每年25,000人。

    Canada is introducing a fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent residents, according to an announcement this week by the minister of citizenship and immigration.

    Until now, students and graduates had to leave Canada to apply for such status, which leads to citizenship in a few years. Currently, foreign students are permitted to work off campus, and earlier this year the government allowed graduates to stay and work for three years.

    The new fast-track policy will apply only to those who have completed two years of academic study in Canada, have worked in professional, skilled, or managerial jobs, and have good English- or French-language skills.

    Canada decided to revamp its policy to stay competitive with Britain and Australia, according to a report in The Globe and Mail, a newspaper. The initial quota for the applicants is from 12,000 to 18,000 per year. It will be increased to 25,000 applicants per year in the future. —Karen Birchard

     

  31. 0815 Finland, Like Sweden, to End Free Study for Some Foreigners
  32. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5002/finland-like-sweden-to-end-free-study-for-some-foreigners

    北歐的芬蘭將效法瑞典,不再給國際學生免費留學。這項修正法案預期將於2009下半年通過,亦即2010年起便將針對國際學生收費。

    按照芬蘭的現行政策,世界所有國家的學生到芬蘭所受的高等教育都是免費的,然而未來這項優惠將僅限於歐盟的27個成員國家了,而針對國際學生的收費,各大學恐怕可以自由設定每年$5000~$18000美金的學費標準。

    瑞典早先也以通過類似的法案,並將於2010年開始生效。然而,這項政策遭受學生團體的反對。瑞典報導指出:「免費教育一項是吸引外國學生來到瑞典的因素」,目前在瑞典有13,000個外國留學生,其中不包排短期交換學生,這些留學生大多都是「來念理工科的亞洲宅男」。

    Some foreign students in Finland will be charged tuition beginning in 2010, if a new university law drawn up by the government is approved and goes into effect, as expected, in late 2009, according to the Finnish newspaper Helsingen Sanomat.

    Students from outside the 27-nation European Union and the European Economic Area now enjoy access to free higher education in Finland, but the new law would impose tuition on non-European students enrolled in certain master’s programs, including those taught “in foreign languages and those with an international orientation,” the newspaper says.

    Such programs are of growing importance to Finnish universities, which are increasingly turning to English-language degree programs in order to attract more international students. According to Finland’s Center For International Mobility, some 450 programs are taught in English at the country’s universities and polytechnics.

    Helsingen Sanomat says universities would be allowed to set annual fees at their discretion, but notes that proposals a few years ago floated a range from approximately $5,000 to $18,000.

    Meanwhile, Sweden’s higher-education minister said recently that similar changes were likely to take effect in that Nordic country in 2010 as well. According to the online publication The Local, the minister, Lars Leijonborg, told Svenska Dagbladet, a leading newspaper, that the government had reached agreement on the controversial issue and was now united in its belief that Swedish universities needed to be able to charge foreign students tuition in the way that American and British universities have long done.

    Student groups oppose the plan and worry that it is the first step toward charging tuition to Swedish students as well.

    “Free education is one of the primary reasons that students choose Sweden,” The Local reports, noting that most of the 13,000 foreign students in Sweden who are not enrolled in exchange programs are “Asian men who are pursuing technical degrees.” —Aisha Labi

     

  33. 0816 Bolivia to Open 3 Universities Teaching in Indigenous Languages
  34. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5003/bolivia-to-open-3-universities-teaching-in-indigenous-languages

    玻利维亞計畫明年開辦三所本土大學,使用三種不同母語教學,期盼藉由教育,在意識型態、文化、社會、經濟上全面達到「去西班牙殖民化」。目前艾碼拉語、喀儲阿語、瓜拉尼語和西班牙語都同為玻利維亞的官方語言。

    反對對這項政策的教育者憂心其師資訓練的不足,以及限定母語教學所帶來的專業限制。

    儘管如此,它們的課表九月便會公布。母語教學的大學將率先開辦農林畜產等基礎科系,這些方面的人才正是該國社會所急需的。

    Bolivia plans to open three indigenous universities next year that will teach in Aymara, Quechua, and Guarani, which are co-official languages in the South American country, along with Spanish. The Bolivian president, Evo Morales, has said the universities would help “decolonize” the country ideologically, culturally, socially, and economically, El Pais reports (in Spanish).

    The plan has stirred debate among some Bolivian educators, who have criticized the universities’ would-be teachers as inadequately trained, and who have worried about the limits of teaching exclusively in the local languages.

    The Bolivian Education and Culture Department said the universities’ curricula would be completed by September, and so far they include subjects such as tropical agronomy, animal husbandry, and forestry, all of them “in great demand.” —Maria José Viñas

     

  35. 0816 Scientists Work to Develop Mind-Reading Technology
  36. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5006/scientists-work-to-develop-mind-reading-technology

    科學家正在開發讀心術

    Four million dollars for your thoughts? With the help of that much in U.S. Army funding, university scientists are trying to develop a gadget that could read people’s minds, the Associated Press reports.

    Led by researchers at the University of California at Irvine, the team is using electroencephalography, or EEG, to analyze the brain activity produced when volunteers think of certain words. The idea is that in the future, thought-recognition software would allow soldiers to transmit messages even if they had brain injuries that prevented them from speaking.

    The Associated Press raises the specter that such mind-reading technology could be used to interrogate the enemy. But a press release from the university describes only the benefits to paralysis and stroke victims. Michael D’Zmura, chair of the UCI Department of Cognitive Sciences, told the AP that the technology, once developed, could never force out thoughts from uncooperative subjects.—Jennifer Ruark

     

  37. 0818 British Universities Offer Cash to Get Students to Enroll in Unpopular Programs
  38. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5009/british-universities-offer-cash-to-get-students-to-enroll-in-unpopular-programs

    冷門科系 英國將給錢讓你來讀!蘭開司特大學有名女學生入學物理系後得到了1000-2000英鎊,原因是很少有女生來念物理!於是這所學校的物理系有三分之一是女生,比例高出國家平均不少。

    上週英國高中畢業生填志願,第一階段過後還有很多冷門校系沒收滿學生,而大約10萬名第一輪填志願落榜的學生將可以再填,已將這些招生名額補足。

    根據目前的英國高等教育政策,各校對本國學生一年的學費上限是6000英鎊。多半大學都「物盡其用」,將收費標準提高到接近這個門檻,然而有很多大學會私下發放現金回饋到學生的帳戶,名為獎學金,其實標準混亂而接近一視同仁。而這只顯現了大學無論如何也不想讓自己從外觀名義上看來「平易近人」。

    Several British universities apparently are offering cash incentives to students to induce them to enroll in unpopular degree programs, according to an investigation by London’s Sunday Times in which undercover reporters posed as students seeking spots.

    A female reporter was offered £1,000, or $2,000, to enroll in Leicester University’s undergraduate physics program and was told “that she was a strong candidate for the money partly because women were ‘underrepresented’ on the course,” the Times reported. About a third of the undergraduates in the university’s physics department are women, which the Times notes “is above the national average.”

    Alan Smithers, director of Buckingham University’s Center for Education Research, told the newspaper that offering money based solely on gender was an “alarming” result of the government’s attempts at “social engineering.”

    Last week, recent British high-school graduates received the results of their A-level examinations, which determine university admissions. Most places have been already allocated based on students’ anticipated grades, but universities are still scrambling to fill undersubscribed courses, and students whose grades did not meet expectations are still trying to secure spots, in a process known as “clearing.” More than 100,000 students are eligible to use the clearing system this year, Britain’s Press Association reported last week.

    All but a handful of undergraduate courses of study cost the government-set maximum annual tuition of approximately $6,000, but the newspaper noted that the “booming market in cash awards to fill some courses” represents an effort by institutions, “reluctant to appear cheap,” to effectively offer discounted rates while officially charging the national norm. Institutions market the payments as scholarships, the newspaper said, but pay them directly into students’ bank accounts instead of reducing their fees, and award them without regard to financial need. —Aisha Labi

     

  39. 0818 McCain Lays Out His Higher-Education Plan
  40. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5007/mccain-lays-out-his-higher-education-plan

    美國共和黨總統提名人麥肯,日前發佈了他的高等教育白皮書。

    Sen.John McCain, the presumptive Republican nominee for president, has released an outline of his higher-education policy.

    His plan sets out six broad goals:

    • Preparing for “the 21st century in higher education” by removing regulatory barriers that he says prevent institutions from moving forward with new ideas and by encouraging the government to support innovative approaches to education. “We must rise to the challenge and modernize our universities so that they retain their status as producers of the most skilled workforce in the world,” Senator McCain’s plan reads.
    • Providing parents better information about colleges by making the data that institutions report to the federal government available in a “clear and concise manner” so that students can make more-informed choices about where to go to college.
    • Simplifying the higher-education tax benefits, to make it easier for more families to claim them.
    • Simplifying the process for applying for and administering federal financial aid by consolidating government programs.
    • Eliminating government spending that lawmakers earmark, through noncompetitive processes, for particular research projects.
    • Fixing problems in student lending by expanding the government’s “lender of last resort” system, in which the federal government makes sure students can find loans if a loan emergency were declared, and by demanding “the highest standard of integrity” for private lenders that participate in the federal system. —Sara Hebel
  41. 0820 Drinking-Age Campaign Binges on Big Names, Big Media
  42. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5017/drinking-age-campaign-binges-on-big-names-big-media

    美國有超過100家大學的掌舵者日前連署,希望將現行飲酒的年齡限制從 21歲放寬到18歲,名單中還赫然發現如約翰霍普金司大學、馬里蘭大學、俄亥俄州立大學這樣的名校。

    然而反對者認為,這是大學主事者推卸責任的做法,這樣大學就不在有義務在校園內規範學生的飲酒問題。

    A campaign to lower the legal drinking age to 18 has been joined by more than 100 college chiefs, including those of many well-known institutions. Dubbed the Amethyst Initiative, the effort is also generating a blitz of news-media coverage today.

    John M. McCardell Jr., president emeritus of Middlebury College, is behind the campaign. As The Chronicle reported last year, Mr. McCardell founded Choose Responsibility, a nonprofit group that seeks to curb binge drinking by giving “drinking licenses” to 18- to 20-year-olds who have been educated about the downsides of alcohol.

    The campaign began heating up in June, when Mr. McCardell spoke at a meeting of the Annapolis Group of liberal-arts colleges. Now presidents of major institutions such as the Johns Hopkins University, the University of Maryland at College Park, and Ohio State University have signed a statement that seeks to “rethink the drinking age.” But not all college presidents are fans of the campaign, which also has a powerful opponent in Mothers Against Drunk Driving. The advocacy group says signatories “shirk responsibility to protect students from dangers of underage drinking.”

    For those wondering about the initiative’s name, the ancient Greeks apparently believed that the purple gemstone amethyst warded off drunkenness and promoted moderation, according to the group’s Web site. —Paul Fain

     

  43. 0820 Psychological Research About Students Who Cheat Could Help Anti-Cheating Campaigns
  44. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5024/psychological-research-about-students-who-cheat-could-help-anti-cheating-campaigns

    美國心理學協會發現,可以利用從不作弊的學生來遏止作弊行為。

    他們的研究發現包含:過去不作弊的學生,在未來也沒有作弊的打算,並且表現出強烈的勇氣、共情與誠實等人格特質。同樣地,他們也比較不情願相信自己有同學在作弊。反之,作弊的學生傾向認為全班每個人都在作弊,且程度比自己還嚴重。

    誠實的學生對人性有叫正面的觀感,但作弊的學生會託別人下水以合理化自身的行為。這個標準有助於讓老師們篩選出有必要防堵作弊的學生對象。

    Professors who use detection programs like Turnitin in the hope of dissuading students from cheating may be on the wrong track. New research by psychologists at Ohio State University at Newark focuses instead on profiling the students who are least likely to cheat, and the findings could help identify a target audience for anti-cheating campaigns, one of the researchers said in a news release from the university.

    The research is based on two studies that together involved more than 450 undergraduates at the Newark campus. The studies found, not too surprisingly, that students who said they had not cheated in the past month or year and had no plans to cheat in the future also scored highest on tests measuring qualities like courage, empathy, and honesty. Non-cheaters were also less likely to believe that their peers had cheated, the studies found. By contrast, students who scored lower on measurements of courage, empathy, and honesty were more likely to report having cheated, and to believe that other students cheated more often than they themselves did, thus rationalizing their behavior.

    Honest students “have a more positive view of others,” explained Sarah Staats, a professor of psychology and a co-author of the study, who presented the findings this past weekend at the annual conference of the American Psychological Association, in Boston. The findings, she said, have implications for identifying both “academic heroes” (non-cheaters) and effective target audiences for anti-cheating campaigns.

    When researchers asked students if they planned to cheat in the future, 47 percent said they did not, while 24 percent agreed or strongly agreed that they would. Anti-cheating campaigns, said Ms. Staats, may be able to sway the undecided 29 percent through messages rooted in positive psychology. “Our results suggest that interventions may have a real opportunity to influence at least a quarter of the student population,” she said. —Paula Wasley

     

  45. 0821 A 1400 SAT, a Stolen Identity, and Now a Guilty Plea From a Former Columbia Student
  46. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5028/a-1400-sat-a-stolen-identity-and-now-a-guilty-plea-from-a-former-columbia-student

    美國一名30歲的女子被發現在2001年竊取六個不同人的身份資料,藉以進入哥倫比亞大學,以及獎學金和留學貸款。據說她還藉此收到過哈佛大學的入學通知。如今她因數起偽造身份罪嫌被具體求刑47年以及遭求處100萬美元的罰鍰,枉費了她1400分的SAT成績。

    A woman pleaded guilty on Tuesday to stealing the identity of a missing woman in order to attend Columbia University, the Associated Press reported.

    Esther Elizabeth Reed, who is 30, faces up to 47 years in prison and $1-million in fines for identity-theft, mail-fraud, wire-fraud, and loan-fraud charges. Ms. Reed was arrested earlier this year and accused of using the identity of Brooke Henson, a South Carolina woman who has been missing since 1999, to get into Columbia and obtain student loans.

    Prosecutors say that, starting in 2001, Ms. Reed juggled six false identities to attend Columbia and California State University at Fullerton, according to the AP. Previous news reports have said Ms. Reed was also admitted to Harvard University under a false identity. At Columbia, at least, prosecutors say Ms. Reed did gain admission using her own SAT score, a 1400. —Elyse Ashburn

     

  47. 0821 U. of San Diego Backtracks on Appointing Feminist Catholic Theologian
  48. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5027/u-of-san-diego-backtracks-on-appointing-feminist-catholic-theologian

    聖地牙哥大學撤銷原本對天主教女性主義神學家的聘任邀請,挨轟!

    這是個兩面不討好的決定,當初自從通過聘任蘿斯瑪利路得為該校資深榮譽教席之後,聖地牙哥大學便不斷地受到來自保守天主教集團的壓力。原因是這位女性神學家也同時是一個支持女性墮胎權利的團體委員會執行成員,而其理念和這個榮譽教席的精神有直接衝突。聖地牙哥大學校方因而在七月中撤回聘任邀請。

    現在聖地牙哥市民,包含50名其大學教員共同簽署了請願書支持路得女士。該請願書除了受到兩個女權團體的支持外,更向校方兩個通牒:一是照原方案聘任路得女士,一是請她到學校來一場演講跟你們好好說明什麼叫學術自由。

    In mid-July, after it received numerous public and private complaints, the University of San Diego withdrew its invitation to a feminist theologian to hold an endowed chair during the fall 2009 semester. Now, some faculty members and Roman Catholic groups are protesting the Catholic university’s decision, which they say prioritized Catholic doctrine over academic freedom.

    The university said it had decided Rosemary Radford Ruether was the wrong person for the prestigious post because of her service on the Board of Directors of the abortion-rights organization Catholics for Choice. “Her public position and the symbol of this chair are in direct conflict,” a university spokeswoman, Pamela Gray Payton, told The San Diego Union-Tribune.

    Two thousand people, including 50 faculty members at San Diego, have signed a petition supporting Ms. Ruether. The petition, sponsored by two women’s religious groups, asks the university either to appoint Ms. Ruether to the position or to host her on the campus for a lecture on academic freedom.

    The university had invited Ms. Ruether to hold the Monsignor John R. Portman Chair in Roman Catholic Theology, a post that would have entailed teaching a course, giving a public lecture, and serving as a mentor for junior faculty members. The invitation drew cries of protest from Catholics who argued that Ms. Ruether’s support of abortion rights is incompatible with Roman Catholic beliefs. —Allie Grasgreen

     

  49. 0822 McCain and Obama Will Debate on 3 University Campuses
  50. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5042/mccain-and-obama-will-debate-on-3-university-campuses

    麥肯和歐巴馬將有三場校園辯論。第一場9月26號在密西西比大學,談外交和國安,由PBS評論員主持。第二場10月7號在田納西州的貝爾蒙大學,談論主題由現場聽眾決定,由NBC新聞評論員主持。第三場於10月15號在紐約中的霍夫司特拉大學,談本土和經濟政策,由CBS評論員主持。

    每場辯論有90分鐘長,美東時間晚間9點開始。

    The presumed Republican and Democratic nominees for president, Sen. John McCain and Sen. Barack Obama, will debate one another three times this fall on university campuses, their campaigns announced today in a joint statement.

    The debates, to be sponsored by the Commission on Presidential Debates, will be held as follows:

    • September26, at the University of Mississippi, on foreign policy and national security, moderated by Jim Lehrer of PBS.
    • October7, at Belmont University, in Tennessee, on topics drawn from a town-hall audience and moderated by Tom Brokaw of NBC News.
    • October15, at Hofstra University, in New York, on domestic and economic policy, moderated by Bob Schieffer of CBS News.

    The campaigns also agreed to hold a debate between the yet-to-be-named vice-presidential candidates, on October 2 at Washington University in St. Louis, moderated by Gwen Ifill of PBS.

    All four debates will last 90 minutes each and will begin at 9 p.m., Eastern time. —Andrew Mytelka

     

  51. 0822 Saudi Arabia Opens Investigation Into Residents Who Used U.S.-Based Diploma Mill
  52. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5047/saudi-arabia-opens-investigation-into-residents-who-used-us-based-diploma-mill

    美國野雞大學學歷在沙烏地阿拉伯流竄。

    SaudiArabia’s Ministry of Higher Education is investigating whether people have used fake degrees purchased from an illegal diploma mill in the United States to obtain work in the Middle Eastern country.

    The U.S. Department of Justice shut down the illegal operation in 2005, and earlier this year the diploma mill’s operators pleaded guilty to fraud. They were subsequently sentenced to prison terms for their roles in the scam, which took in $7.3-million from some 10,000 people. It was only last month that a list of those people was published by the local newspaper in Spokane, Wash., where the diploma mill was based.

    The Arab News reported that Saudi authorities opened an investigation after 69 Saudi residents were among those listed by the Spokane newspaper.

    A member of the Saudi Shura Council, a legislative body, criticized Saudi newspapers for having published advertisements for the illegitimate operation in the first place. The official, Abdullah Al-Tuwairqi, urged government officials to extend the investigation to newspapers that publish such ads without first conducting background checks on the institutions, the Arab News reported.

    Similar questions are being asked in other Arab countries, as people in Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates were also listed as purchasers of the bogus certificates.

    In Bahrain, the Gulf Daily News reported that the Higher Education Council, which is responsible for verifying foreign degrees, had not encountered any of the 10 Bahrainis who appear on the list of purchasers. —Andrew Mills

     

  53. 0825 Christian College in Indonesia Will Relocate After Violent Attacks
  54. http://chronicle.com/news/article/5054/christian-college-in-indonesia-will-relocate-after-violent-attacks

    印尼阿拉司塔碼福音神學院於7月25日起連續遭受當地居民持柴刀和火焰瓶入校攻擊,18名學生受傷,校方以當下將學生全部撤離。

    如今這所有1400名學生的基督教學院將決定撤離這個穆斯林社區。他們的關係自從2003年起便趨於緊張,當地居民不滿學生從校內傳出大聲的唱歌和禱告聲音。這個夏天由於該社區有多起輕微失竊案被懷疑是其學生所為,緊張情勢一觸即發。然而,有觀察者指出此起事件很可能是有地皮商人在背後操弄,他們希望買下這塊僅建校20年的校地作為開發之用。

    近來印尼的激進伊斯蘭組織對其他宗教時有攻擊行為,有時連一些立場較為不同的穆斯林清真寺都會成為他們攻擊對象。

    Attacks on their campus have forced students at a Christian college in Indonesia’ s capital to take refuge in tents and in the lobby of the parliament building for nearly a month, while the theology school has agreed to relocate out of a predominantly Muslim neighborhood, the Associated Press reported.

    The first assaults on the Arastamar Evangelical School of Theology, which is also known as Seta College, took place on July 25, when residents of the neighborhood in Jakarta entered the campus with machetes and Molotov cocktails. Eighteen students were injured in the clashes, and administrators evacuated the five dormitories after a second night of attacks.

    Relations between the 1,400-student school and its neighbors have been tense since 2003, as local residents have complained about loud singing and prayers coming from the campus. This summer, tensions escalated over reports of petty thefts by students, including a pet bird. But some observers suspect that local property developers, who have been trying to buy the 20-year-old campus, are behind the attacks.

    Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim country, has traditionally tolerated minority religions. But recently, radical groups have attacked churches and even mosques that oppose a hard-line doctrine.

    The school’s administrators have agreed to move the campus to a small office building in another part of Jakarta. —Martha Ann Overland

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