Holistic Mission as the essential means to convey salvific love
By Mu-tien Chiou
It was generally recognized that after the new Council for World Mission was proposed in Lausanne in 1975, an evangelical consensus has been reached that world mission is by its biblical nature a multi-faceted task. When Jesus proclaimed the good news to the world its content and context was the reign/realm of God embodied by his words and deeds. Some observes that there are in the biblical context at least the following key-terms to be identified as the character of Christian mission: conversion; reconciliation; liberation; sacrificial caring; preaching and teaching. In the recent decades the term « holistic mission » has become popularized in the scholarly studies of missiology. The present integrated paper hence focuses on the implication and application of « holistic mission » in its theoretical formulation and practical realization. Both positive and critical examination will be given, while in the end I will argue that despite complexities in its philosophical overtones, the term remains helpful for undergirding and direction of the church’s missionary task.
For structural reasons, the main body of this paper will be divided into four sections. We will first 1) go through a brief definition of the nomenclature, which 2) we will subsequently try to validate by referring to the Scripture; then 3) there is a critical assessment of holistic mission from the perspective of epistemology, 4) with illustrations we will discuss the limitations, contributions, and changing possibilities for the practice of holistic mission.
I. Defining of Terminology
The Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions (hence EDWM) gives the following definition for « holistic mission »:
Holistic mission is concerned with ministry to the whole person through the transforming power of the gospel. While holistic mission affirms the functional uniqueness of evangelism and social responsibility, it views them as inseparable from the ministry of the kingdom of God. Therefore, holistic mission is the intentional integration of building the church and transforming society.[iii]
The bold emphasis reflects the central concern of holistic mission, which is the relationship between evangelism and social responsibility. Traditionally, evangelical theology put a high emphasis on conversion and church planting as their primary missionary task, and their involvement in education, health, and rural development programs was often thought as auxiliary and inessential. This view, somehow resulted in a lofty and irrelevant soteriology, was severely challenged first by the liberal movements of the early twentieth century, which has taken a positive stand on the social gospel and interreligious conciliarism. The result was a unresolved dichotomy that has been made in the old liberal-fundamentalist split.[iv]
Biblical holism is known as an attempt by writers of the 1975 Lausanne Covenant to bridge the gap by seeking integration of evangelism and social action. EDWM defines the term holism in another place as following:
« Holism » as it relates to Christian mission means that the church’s mission in the world includes not only gospel proclamation but also sociopolitical, economic, and health dimensions. Those who hold this position believe that mending social ills and alleviating political injustices are integral to Christian mission.[v]
Evangelism and social concern are already intricately interwoven, and it should continue to be so, just as Speer’s word in 1919 was rightly quoted, « Rightly conducted, these [schools, hospitals, dispensaries, asylums for orphans and lepers and the insane, schools for the blind and the deaf and dumb, printing presses, homes for tuberculosis patients] are not only agencies of evangelization; they are evangelization. »[vi]
II. A Survey of Biblical Theology on Holistic Mission
However, offering a definition without scriptural validation is always a risky business. Holistic mission needs to be framed within a theological vision of God’s kingdom purposes in creating, sustaining, redeeming, renewing, and making whole humanity and all of creation.[vii] Evangelicals today are still divided over their view of the missionary task. Some believe that the principal goal of missions is evangelism, while others have shown a greater interest in matters of social import. Although the Bible is acknowledged by most of them to be authoritative for the Church’s view of mission, it is remarked that few have adequately grounded their theology of mission in the Scriptures.[viii] Dyrness’ published work in 1983 is a pioneering attempt to undergird the Lausanne I by reexamining what the Bible has to say about mission in its own historical-cultural terms, without leaving behind the evangelical voices since the council.[ix] Heldt’s monograph « Revisiting the ‘Whole Gospel' », while he himself used to be a medical practitioner of holistic ministry overseas, also presents valuable insights and models of holistic mission from his reading of the Gospel account of Jesus, in particular that according to Luke.[x] Numerous literature on missiology have contributed to this theme as well. Due to space constraints, we will survey the holistic idea in general terms, without necessarily going into detailed exegesis or citing scholarly names.
Holistic mission first begins with God’s creation of the world in perfect harmony (Gen. 1–2). Humans as image-bearers are in charge of the stewardship of all His creations in this world as a whole, including themselves (Gen 1:27-30, 2:17). Unfortunately, the violation of His mandates allowed the entry of sin into this world, it first broke the sheer God-man relationship (Gen 3:8-11), and then wrecked the once harmonious creation order (Gen 3:16-20, 24; Rom 3:23, 5:12). Yet God does not abandon human kind and keeps intervening the history through various redemptive means. His salvific plan triggers typically with a special election of one person, one people (Abraham in Gen 12:1-3; Moses and the Israel in Ex. 15:2-3; and finally the incarnation and the exaltation of His son in the gospels). Just as the death also prevailed in this world and reigned through the trespass of one man, the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life is also bestowed through one (Rom 5:17). This people were to be an « elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession (1 Pe. 2:9; cf., Ex. 19:5-6).
However, this does not mean that they only need to dress in purity and holiness and worship God on Sundays/Sabbaths. A simple leafing through the narratives of these figures suffices to show that their mission and restored relationship with God and people are « holistic ».[xi] Abraham’s depart from home for the promised land is indeed a spiritual journey, but he is also fighting the evil kings (Gen 14), going through economic difficulties (Gen 13), and dealing with familial issues (Gen 16-17) for real! The Mosaic law prescribed by God for the Israelites after their possession of the promised land also includes theological, social, and economic dimensions, that is said to be a covenant of life and shalom (Mal 2:5).
The sheer failure of the chosen nation to carry out God’s mandates, exemplified by the Israelites’ stiff-necked disobedience, has resulted in cruel Judgment. But God also promised a Messiah, who is unfailing in His mission to establish the Kingdom of righteousness and shalom (Isa. 2:4; 9:6–7; 42:1–4; Jer. 31:31–34). Throughout the incarnated Messiah’s ministry we find the integration of physical healing and spiritual salvation, that the dumb is now speaking, the maimed whole, and lame walking, and the blind seeing, and that the whole crowd were amazed and glorified the God of Israel. (Mat 15:30-31). Heldt summarizes the normative for our missionary praxis that missiologists have reflected on the earthly ministry and testimony of Jesus, noting the following: 1) Jesus’ ministry is deeply grounded in the Hebrew Scripture (Isaiah 61:1-2) and 2) is never done apart from the unite efforts of Holy Spirit (Luk 4:18); 3) Jesus has a holistic understanding of human life and experience.[xii]
Jesus’ understanding and his ministerial paradigm were further passed down to his disciples through the Great Commandment to love one’s neighbors (Matt. 22:37–40) and the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18–20) of making disciples on the whole earth. The Acts of Apostles gives the answer of how those who received them developed and embodied them. Just in one case study of Paul’s missionary strategy in Acts 19-20, Neil Cole noticed that 1) Paul established a regional base of church planter development (Acts 19:9, 20:18); 2) Paul implemented a teaching/mentoring strategy by life example, both in large gatherings and small groups (Acts 20:19-20); 3) Paul integrated evangelism into the spiritual formation of his disciples as a foundation for training leaders for ministry (Acts 20:21); 4) Paul released the power of God’s word in people’s lives to carry the grassroots movement of multiplication (Acts 19:20); 5) Paul gave the Holy Spirit His rightful place in leading his disciples into ministry (Acts 20:28); 6) Paul mentored individuals on a one-to-one basis (Acts 20:31); 7) Paul empowered his leaders with accountability to God for the work that he modeled for them, so that his presence wasn’t needed for the work to continue after him (Acts 20:32).[xiii] In conclusion, the Christian mission never stands alone from social actions and service for human.
III. Missiological and Philosophical reflection on « biblical holism »
How then are the implications for our missiological reflection and missionary praxis becoming different if considering such biblical holism? Does Jesus’ healing of the sick justify western medical projects as part of Christian mission today? Does Jesus’ feeding of the 5,000 in the desert mandate the First World’s sharing of financial resources with the Third World? The answer is yes or no. Ringma, quoting Newbigin, suggests that the discussion between evangelism and social concern is « futile » and « irrelevant » in the first place.[xiv] In the history of the church, it had never been neglected that the church’s task is to embody God’s concern for the whole person in all spheres of life. It was not until the first half of the twentieth century in the United States of America that the evangelism’s focus was shifted from a fuller missional vision to a limitive « spiritual gospel » as a result to their counteraction against theological liberalism.[xv] Holistic mission thus can be understood as a restoration to evangelicalism’s genuine tradition.[xvi] Kenneth Luscombe’s supplements in the conclusion of his missionary experience to the urban poor, saying that « holistic mission is not just evangelism plus social action, but the way all things are essentially interconnected. »[xvii]
In practice, nonetheless, those who claim that they are doing a holistic mission are not without difficulty and failures. Jim Harries, who has been serving in Zambia and then Kenya since 1988, observed that difference between worldviews could pervert the « whole gospel » that holistic missionaries try to preach to another culture.[xviii] In Africa, their religious world view is rooted in search of power, whether it’s supernatural, political, or financial. Material provisions from the western missionaries are not seen as anything additional to the church, for in their worldview there is no such a « non-religious » category as is occupied by « secularism » in the western case.[xix]
The inadvertent implication of this is a prosperity gospel being received though those who preach it call it « holistic ». Once the external funding and provision cease, the pure action of gospel preaching is thought to be impoverished and dead. This has in turn created a chain of dependency, that is, the targeted recipients of the gospel depend heavily on the Western missionaries, so these missionaries have to keep raise fund and get material support from their senders. What is worse learned by Harries through his sojourn in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia is that « donors offering finance and material to the Third World church thereby acquire power to influence the church concerned. »[xx] The planted church hence could never become independent as its needs for finance to develop programs (such as education and health) are increasingly being advocated, to the extent that the indigenous church leader’s refusal to accept external aids would negatively impact his/her reputation in the congregation.[xxi]
From philosophical perspective, Ringma questions whether the term « holistic mission » is biblically legitimate. The word « holism » essentially reflections the philosophical problems of the West, namely, 1) the separation of the sacred and secular since the Enlightenment, 2) the structuralization of life and institutions in the modern world, and 3) the Greek dualism that persists in much of historical Christianity. Derived from 19th century German idealism and then exploited by various cults , its key ideas in a broad spectrum have been that « the universe and consciousness are diverse, but intimately connected ».[xxii] The basic problem of this idea is its elusion from « a transcendent and preexisting God and the reality of a created order ».[xxiii]
A solution to this, according Ringma, would be using « integral mission » instead of « holistic mission », since 1) it remedies, by a move « from part to completeness », the false assumption that one could draw from « holism » that we work « from whole to part »; 2) « To integrate something means the addition of parts as contributing to a greater whole », just as our interventions of prayer and work contribute to a greater well-being and wholeness; 3) « holistic mission » demands too much in terms of its « philosophical underpinning ». As sinner-saints, all we can do is to make contributions to this broken world « through our fruitful and sacrificial service » and passionately hope for God’s eschatological fulfillment of the whole. This surrenders adequate place for « Missio Dei », or what some would like to call a « Transformation Theology ».[xxiv]
IV. Appeal for Practical Change
If God’s will for the world is restore the human race to a harmonious relationship between God and human and between human and human, then the Third World mission that creates a hierarchical dependency must have gone wrong seriously. Harries critically points out that » It is surely wrong to assume that, because Jesus fed people by miracles (on very few occasions) and healed people (rather more often), western Christians now have a mandate to create material dependence of the rest of the globe on them by imitating his actions using alternative rational means.[xxv] The ministerial pattern given by the Scriptures, exemplified by Jesus’ feeding of the multitude and healing of the sick, was not the dependency on a distant economy, the use of bio-medicine, or other foreign links.
An interesting thing Harries finds is that in this respect non-western societies are better in line with the Scriptures than rationally oriented West. [xxvi] Ringma, who has been teaching for seven years in Manila in the 1990s’, applauds his observation by noting that « the churches in these continents are moving further away from a colonial hermeneutic and a Western ecclesiology, continuing their journey in new paths of ministry and mission, and becoming able to resist the Western global agenda. »[xxvii]
Carol McEntyre, director of Buckner Community Ministries at First Baptist Church of Knoxville in Tennessee, USA, though not serving across American cultural boundaries, seems to have grasped the non-Western knowhow: As the initial action to reach the local youth, instead of harvesting « the immediate good feeling of giving away a Christmas basket or sponsoring a child at the holidays », she sets up school-based mentoring program that brings volunteers face-to-face with at-risk children, letting them know that there is always someone there. Coupled with their English learning lesson s for local Latino people groups, this people-centered strategy builds community rather than delivering a package of services. It mobilizes the assets, skills, and capacities of residents, squatter associations and people’s organizations, rather than focusing on their needs, problems and deficiencies. As the mutual trust between the school and the church is solidified, the advancement of the gospel is fruitful and reflects on the growth of the church.[xxviii]
This is in accordance with the remedy that Harries prescribes for those First World missionaries who are all too often using « their control of the purse strings » to dictate to their Third World brothers. He suggests that working with the locals and leading a simply lifestyle « by receiving from those whom they serve » (1 Cor. 9:11) will prevent western missionaries from « being preoccupied in promoting their own culture » and the ignorance of the contours of local context.[xxix] Also, because the official languages used in African counties are primarily European, Harries warns « missionary pride » it guarantees must be addressed. Those missionaries’ failure to learn local languages have caused remarkable barriers to their understanding of African Weltanschauung and have confined their ministry to the upper classes. Operating one’s Christian ministry in the vernacular, according to Harries, has the benefits of resulting 1) an « enforced humility » as the missionary begins as learner, 2) the boost of the gospel-recipient’s self-esteem, and hence 3) enables a ministry across the economic spectrum, 4) building a foundation that local people will understand and can imitate.[xxx]
Holistic missions, a term that was given birth after the 1975 Lausanne Covenant and is gaining growing popularity in the 21st century, actually recuperation of the evangelical tradition in the Great Awakening and what was understood as Christian mission by early churches in the history of Christianity. Whether the « integral mission » should be a better substitute for « holistic mission » or not, there is little dispute in the broad framework we find in the pages of Scripture that God’s concern and his salvation are not for a segment of life but for all of it. This Missio Dei should always be the guideline and assurance for our « holistic/integral mission ».[xxxi] Though issues of contextualization, divided worldviews, and our sinner-saints condition have presented challenges to our loyalty to the Great Commandment/Commission, we must not forget that Holy Spirit is the prime mover behind all our missionary efforts. We do our part by taking actions to fight against the hierarchy of missional dependency; we conquer our missionary pride by seeking to understand and appreciate what the impoverished have rather than what they lack; we improve our supporting programs and maintain good relationships with neighbors; most importantly, we put our faith in the God who really fulfills what we do to be « holistic missions ».
Cole, Neil. « A Fresh Perspective of Paul’s Missionary Strategies: The Mentoring for Multiplication Model. » 1-18. Long Beach, CA, 1998.
Dyrness, William A. Let the Earth Rejoice! : A Biblical Theology of Holistic Mission. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1983.
Fackre, Gabriel J. « Liberation and Evangelization : Some Historical and Theological Footnotes. » Occasional Bulletin of Missionary Research 3, no. 2 (1979): 58-59.
Harries, Jim. « ‘Material Provision’ or Preaching the Gospel: Reconsidering ‘Holistic’ (Integral) Mission. » Evangelical Quarterly 80, no. 3 (2008): 257-70 %U http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rlh&AN=32547544??zh-tw&site=ehost-live.
Heldt, Jean Paul A. « Revisiting The « Whole Gospel »: Toward a Biblical Model of Holistic Mission in the 21st Century. » Missiology 32, no. 2 (2004): 149-72.
Kritzinger, J. J. « By Word, Work and Wonder: Cases in Holistic Missions. » Missionalia 25, no. 1 (1997): 151.
McAlpine, Thomas H. By Word, Work and Wonder: Cases in Holistic Missions. Monrovia, Calif: Marc, 1995.
Moreau, A. Scott, Gary Corwin, and Gary B. McGee. Introducing World Missions : A Biblical, Historical, and Practical Survey, Encountering Missions. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2004.
Moreau, A. Scott, Harold A. Netland, Charles Edward van Engen, and David Burnett. Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, Mich.; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Baker Books; Paternoster Press, 2000.
Padilla, C. Rene. « The Future of Christianity in Latin America: Missiological Perspectives and Challenges. » In Mission at the Dawn of the 21st Century, 164-82. Minneapolis, Minn.: Kirk House Publishers, 1999.
———. « Imperial Globalization and Integral Mission. » Princeton Seminary Bulletin, no. 27 (2006): 5-22.
———. « Wholistic Mission : Evangelical and Ecumenical. » In Constructive Christian Theology in the Worldwide Church, 426-28. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.
« »Perceiving Frontiers, Crossing Boundaries » : Report of the Partnership in Mission Consultation of the Council for World Mission. » International Review of Mission 85, no. 337 (1996): 291-98.
Rae, Simon. « Grassroots Mission: Holistic Mission in a Fractured World. » Missiology 29, no. 1 (2001): 103-04.
Ringma, Charles. « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization. » Missiology 32, no. 4 (2004): 431-48.
———. « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization. » Crux 38, no. 2 (2002): 20-34.
Rogers, Franci. « From ‘Handouts’ to Holistic Ministry. » Family and community ministries 21, no. 2 (2007): 18-20.
Schreiner, Tom. « Let the Earth Rejoice: A Biblical Theology of Holistic Mission. » Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27, no. 3 (1984): 335-36.
Scott, Waldron. « By Word, Work and Wonder: Cases in Holistic Missions. » Missiology 25, no. 4 (1997): 488-89.
Vincent, John J. « Serving with the Urban Poor: Cases in Holistic Ministry. » Missiology 30, no. 4 (2002): 551-52.
Wilkinson, Alan. « Faith-Based Diplomacy: Trumping Realpolitik. » Expository Times 115, no. 3 (2003): 104-05.
Yamamori, Tetsunao, Bryant L. Myers, and Kenneth L. Luscombe. Serving with the Urban Poor: Cases in Holistic Ministry, Cases in Holistic Ministry. Monrovia, Calif: Marc, 1998.
[i] It has termed itself as « Lausanne Movement » and is planning to hold its third international gathering (Lausanne III) in 2010 in Cape Town, South Africa. Their official website includes an online version of the 1975 Lausanne Covenant (http://www.lausanne.org/lausanne-1974/lausanne-covenant.html ) as well as an introduction about its foundation, heritage, and history. See http://www.lausanne.org/ for all details.
[ii] « »Perceiving Frontiers, Crossing Boundaries » : Report of the Partnership in Mission Consultation of the Council for World Mission, » International Review of Mission 85, no. 337 (1996)., p. 291
[iii] A. Scott Moreau et al., Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, Baker Reference Library (Grand Rapids, Mich.; Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Baker Books; Paternoster Press, 2000)., 448. Bold emphasis mine.
[iv] Jean Paul A. Heldt, « Revisiting The « Whole Gospel »: Toward a Biblical Model of Holistic Mission in the 21st Century, » Missiology 32, no. 2 (2004). 191
[v] Moreau et al., Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions., 529
[vi] Goodpasture, H. McKennie, « Robert E. Speer (1867-1947): Affirming the Finality of Christ. » In Mission Legacies: Bibliographical Studies of Leaders of the Modern Missionary Movement. G H. Anderson, R. Τ. Coote, N. A. Horner, and J. M. Phillips, eds., Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books., 564
[vii] Charles Ringma, « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization, » Missiology 32, no. 4 (2004).
[viii] Tom Schreiner, « Let the Earth Rejoice: A Biblical Theology of Holistic Mission, » Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27, no. 3 (1984)., 335
[ix] William A. Dyrness, Let the Earth Rejoice! : A Biblical Theology of Holistic Mission (Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books, 1983).
[x] Heldt, « Revisiting The « Whole Gospel »: Toward a Biblical Model of Holistic Mission in the 21st Century. »
[xi] Such contemporary terms may be lacking in the Judeo-Christian Scripture, however, this does not detain us from discovering and expounding genuine biblical themes.
[xii] For example, when He raised Jairus’ daughter from the dead, he did not forget the consequent physical needs of the young maid and command that something should be given her to eat (Mk 5:40-43). Heldt (155) further took notice of four different types of Jesus’ holistic healing of human’s body, soul, and spirit, namely, (a) eyesight to the blind that refers to the physical nature of our existence, (b) good news to the poor addresses the mental (cognitive) and economic dimension of human nature; (c) release to the captives pertains to our social (and also emotional) nature; and (d) liberty for the oppressed relates, for the most part, to the spiritual component of our human nature. See further Heldt, « Revisiting The « Whole Gospel »: Toward a Biblical Model of Holistic Mission in the 21st Century. »
[xiv] Ringma, « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization. », 434
[xv] Ibid., 435
[xvi] M. Daniel Carroll R. in EDWM calls it a « a recuperation of evangelical roots in, for example, the influence of JOHN WESLEY (1703–91) and Methodism on English society, the successful efforts by William Wilberforce (1759–1833) and others to abolish the slave trade in the British Empire, and the two GREAT AWAKENINGS in the United States in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries which were concerned with improving the moral life of believers and fomenting Christian education and anti-slavery sentiments. » (« Justice of God » Moreau et al., Evangelical Dictionary of World Missions, 529.)
[xvii] Tetsunao Yamamori, Bryant L. Myers, and Kenneth L. Luscombe, Serving with the Urban Poor: Cases in Holistic Ministry, Cases in Holistic Ministry (Monrovia, Calif: Marc, 1998), 195.
[xviii] Harries, Jim. « ‘Material Provision’ or Preaching the Gospel: Reconsidering ‘Holistic’ (Integral) Mission. » Evangelical Quarterly 80, no. 3
[xix] Harries vividly illustrates that when someone from America saying that they ‘trust completely in God’ is assumed to mean this as ‘in addition to their pension and medical insurance’. Western preachers may say such things that are true in their own context, but far from true in the targeted recipients context. Jim Harries, « ‘Material Provision’ or Preaching the Gospel: Reconsidering ‘Holistic’ (Integral) Mission, » Evangelical Quarterly 80, no. 3 (2008): 268.
[xxii] Ringma, « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization, » 436.
[xxiv] Ibid.: 439, 40.
[xxv] Harries, « ‘Material Provision’ or Preaching the Gospel: Reconsidering ‘Holistic’ (Integral) Mission, » 263.
[xxvi] Ibid.: 262.
[xxvii] Ringma, « Holistic Ministry and Mission: A Call for Reconceptualization, » 440.
[xxviii] Franci Rogers, « From ‘Handouts’ to Holistic Ministry, » Family and community ministries 21, no. 2 (2007).
[xxix] Harries, « ‘Material Provision’ or Preaching the Gospel: Reconsidering ‘Holistic’ (Integral) Mission, » 270.
[xxxi] Since the late 1970s’, the word » Wholistic » has been coined and made occasional appearances on journals related to pastoral psychology then to Christian mission as an alternative to holistic/integral. See for example, Driedger, Leo, Raymond Currie, and Rick Linden. « Dualistic and Wholistic Views of God and the World : Consequences for Social Action. » Review of Religious Research 24, no. 3 (1983): 225-44; Flory, Byron M. « Wholistic Ministry – Challenge to Growth and Wholeness within the Local Congregation. » Brethren Life and Thought 28, no. 2 (1983): 101-06; Lehmann-Habeck, Martin. « Wholistic Evangelism : A Wcc Perspective. » International Review of Mission 73, no. 289 (1984): 7-16; Paul, Robin. « Wholistic Models of Evangelism and Social Responsibility, 1 : The Spirit and Justice: A Model for Reflection and Action. » Transformation 2, no. 2 (1985): 5-8; Peters, Ted. « Toward 2010 : Wholistic Agendas for Theology and Ministry. » Word & World 7, no. 2 (1987): 167-78; Sugden, Chris. « Evangelicals and Wholistic Evangelism. » In Proclaiming Christ in Christ’s Way, 29-51. Oxford: Regnum Books, 1989; Kehrein, Glen. « The Church and Wholistic Ministry : A Case Study. » In Caring for the Least of These, 91-96. Scottdale, Penn: Herald Pr, 1992; Padilla, C. Rene. « Wholistic Mission : Evangelical and Ecumenical. » International Review of Mission 81, no. 323 (1992): 381-82; Samuel, Vinay, and Colleen Samuel. « Rebuilding Families : A Priority for Wholistic Mission. » Transformation 10 (1993): 5-7; Kong, Wong Kim. « Wholistic Mission–a Malaysian Model. » Transformation 11 (1994): 15-17; Padilla, C. Rene. « Wholistic Mission : Evangelical and Ecumenical. » In Constructive Christian Theology in the Worldwide Church, 426-28. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997; Quarles, Naima A. « A Wholistic View of Missions. » AME Zion Quarterly Review 109 (1997): 62-70. Maddox, Randy L. « ‘Visit the Poor’: Wesley’s Precedent for Wholistic Mission. » Transformation 18, no. 1 (2001): 37-50; Mok, Chan Wing Yan. « Christian Drug Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: Issues in Wholistic Urban Mission. » Transformation 21, no. 2 (2004): 92-100.